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confusion, acute, risk for

Susceptible to reversible disturbances of consciousness, attention, cognition, and perception that develop over a short period of time, which may compromise health. SEE: Nursing Diagnoses Appendix.


(kŏn′jĕn-ĕr) [L. con, together, + genus, race] 1. Two or more muscles with the same function. 2. Something that resembles something else in structure, function, or origin. In the production of alcoholic beverages by fermentation, chemical substances termed congeners are also produced. These chemicals, more than 100 of which are known, impart aroma and flavor to the alcoholic compound. The precise role of these congeners in producing toxic effects is unknown.


(kŏn-jĕn′ĭ-tăl) [L. congenitus, born together] Present at birth.

congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

ABBR: CCHS. A single-amino acid disorder in which the normal respiratory triggers for breathing (hypoxemia or hypercapnia) are obstructed by failed chemoreception. CCHS causes hypoventilation, esp. when affected children sleep.

congenital disease

SEE: under disease.

congenital disorder of glycosylation

ABBR: CDG. Any of the diseases that result from faulty glycosylation of asparagine.

congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium

ABBR: CHRPE. A thickening of the retinal pigment epithelium present at birth. The thickening appears on funduscopic examination as an oval, black, clearly demarcated lesion within which there are atrophic areas surrounded by a halo that has no pigment. It has been associated with and has been considered to be an ocular marker of familial adenomatous polyposis.

congenital insensitivity to pain

ABBR: CIP. A rare defect in perception of pain in which children are born with an inherited sensory and autonomic neuropathy and a markedly reduced ability to perceive painful experiences, e.g., bone and joint injuries, lacerations, and abrasions.

congenital rubella syndrome

ABBR: CRS. Infection of the fetus early in a pregnancy, caused by transplacental transmission of the rubella virus and leading to a wide range of problems including spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or major birth defects of the heart, eyes, or central nervous system, including deafness. Women who become pregnant and have not received rubella immunization should be advised of the risk of fetal development of CRS. For unimmunized women who develop rubella in the first trimester of pregnancy, the risk of CRS may be as high as 85%. The risk decreases sharply after the eighth week of pregnancy and is absent after the 20th week of gestation. Fetal infection can be determined by serial studies of the immunoglobulin gamma M and immunoglobulin gamma G rubella antibodies. Prevention of CRS consists of active immunization of all children and of women of childbearing age.

image Immunization with live rubella virus ...

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