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After studying this chapter, the reader should be able to:

  • 16.1 Define the types of vegetarianism.

  • 16.2 Describe the effects of vegetarianism on athletic performance.

  • 16.3 Explain the origin of gluten and which grains do and do not contain gluten.

  • 16.4 Describe the effects of a gluten-free diet on athletic performance.

  • 16.5 List the most common food allergens.

  • 16.6 Explain the physiology of exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

  • 16.7 Compare and contrast the Paleo diet, raw food diet, and detox diets.


  • anaphylactic shock The potentially life-threatening state the body enters when experiencing anaphylaxis; used interchangeably with anaphylaxis.

  • anaphylaxis A potentially life-threatening allergic reaction with a wide range of symptoms including hives, swelling, itching, and difficulty breathing and swallowing.

  • celiac disease A condition in which the body’s immune system reacts to gluten-containing foods and initiates an allergic reaction. Inflammation of the gastrointestinal system results, and in addition to other symptoms such as abdominal bloating, pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and fatigue, there is decreased absorption of nutrients by the body, which can lead to deficiencies.

  • detoxification Used to describe diets that attempt to purge the body of harmful 21st-century toxins including food additives, pesticides, pollutants, and other synthetic compounds in order to achieve a state of body purification.

  • epinephrine pen A pen-shaped applicator containing a dose of epinephrine, which is used to stop anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction.

  • flexitarian diet Synonymous with the semi-vegetarian diet, this diet is one in which a person does not usually eat meat, fish, or poultry but will infrequently include these foods in their diet.

  • food intolerance A reaction to certain foods that results from a deficiency in an enzyme that is needed to break down that food. The immune system is not involved in the reaction.

  • food poisoning Illness that results from ingestion of toxins released by bacteria that grow on food.

  • gliadin A protein component of gluten, which triggers the immune system response for people with celiac disease.

  • gluten A protein compound that is made up of two proteins, glutenin and gliadin, and found in the grains wheat, barley, and rye.

  • gluten sensitivity Also known as gluten intolerance, a condition in which people appear to have a negative response to gluten-containing foods, however no allergic reaction results.

  • irritable bowel syndrome A gastrointestinal condition of uncertain etiology that manifests as abdominal pain and cramping, gas, bloating, and diarrhea or constipation.

  • lacto-ovo-vegetarian A vegetarian who consumes eggs and dairy products, but does not consume meat, poultry, or fish.

  • lacto-vegetarian A vegetarian who consumes dairy products, but does not consume eggs, meat, poultry, or fish.

  • omnivore A person who consumes both plant and animal foods.

  • oral allergy syndrome A condition that results when a protein in certain raw foods causes an immediate inflammatory response from the moment the food touches the mouth or skin.

  • ovo-vegetarian A vegetarian who consumes eggs, but does not consume meat, poultry, fish, or dairy products.

  • Paleo/Paleolithic diet A diet that aims to mimic what hunters and gatherers ...

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