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depressive disorder



(dē-prĕs′or) [L.] 1. A variety of muscle (d. anguli oris). 2. An agent or drug which depresses function. 3. An instrument used to press down on tissues, e.g., on the tongue.

tongue d. A device used to draw down and displace the tongue to facilitate visual examination of the throat.


(dep″rĭ-vā′shŏn) [de- + L. privare, to remove] 1. Loss or absence of a necessary part or function. 2. Poverty.

androgen d. 1. The chemical suppression of male sex hormones to prevent their stimulatory effects on various hormone-sensitive illnesses, including prostate cancer and predatory sexual behavior. SYN: androgen suppression. 2. Orchiectomy.

emotional d. Isolation of an individual, esp. an infant, from social support and human contact. It impairs early childhood development.

sensory d. The absence of usual and accustomed visual, auditory, tactile, or other stimuli, e.g., in patients whose eyes are bandaged for extended periods following eye surgery, patients on respirators, astronauts, or people imprisoned in dark, soundproof cells. The long-lasting absence of normal stimuli eventually produces psychological and neurological symptoms, including auditory and visual hallucinations, anxiety, depression, and delusions.

PATIENT CARE: The patient's usual response to prolonged quiet or isolation is assessed. Patients who require more environmental stimuli (radio, TV noise, social contact) suffer more (and more quickly) than do those who prefer quiet. Stimulation is provided to replace those stimuli that the patient is deprived of. Caregivers tell those patients who cannot see or whose visual field is limited by position or equipment about weather, time of day, and surrounding colors. They also describe equipment, locations, food, and other features of the environment that the patient wants to experience but cannot see, allowing touch to help replace vision. For the patient whose hearing is reduced by location or equipment (or by effects of drug therapy), devices are used that assist the hearing-impaired to understand speech. Sensory-deprived patients are encouraged to use radio or TV as desired, and the health care professional makes frequent visits to prevent these patients from feeling abandoned. Therapies are related to time of day (such as before breakfast, after dinner, at bedtime) and a clock and calendar are provided to assist with time orientation. Reported auditory or visual hallucinations should be investigated thoroughly and a source sought that can simulate the sound or sight reported by the patient, e.g., a linen cart may sound like a passing truck; a moving curtain may look like a ghost. Caregivers validate reality for the patient by changing lighting or altering external noises to eliminate confusion.

sleep d. 1. Prolonged periods of time without sleep (sustained natural, periodic suspension of relative consciousness). SEE: Nursing Diagnoses Appendix.

image Sleep deprivation is ...

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