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Cockayne syndrome

(kŏ-kān) [Edward A. Cockayne, Brit. physician, 1880#x2013;1956] A congenital syndrome characterized by dwarfism, gait disturbance, microcephaly, ocular atrophy, photosensitivity, and premature aging.

Cockcroft-Gault formula

A calculation used to estimate creatinine clearance based on age, weight, serum creatinine, and gender. Estimated creatinine clearance may be used to adjust dosages of renally excreted drugs. This formula is commonly used to adjust dosages for adult patients because their serum creatinine level may be a poor indicator of renal function. Because of decreased muscle mass in older patients, the serum creatinine level is a poor indicator of renal function; therefore this formula is used to adjust dosages. For men the formula is (140 - age) (weight in kg)/72 × serum creatinine. For women, this result is multiplied by the factor 0.85.


(kok′rōch″) [Sp. cucaracha] Any of the very common insect pests of the family Blattidae that infest homes and facilities that handle and store food. There are approx. 4500 species of cockroach, of which approx. 30 are associated with humans. The most common species in the U.S. are Blatta, Blatella, Eurycotis, and Periplaneta. Cockroaches defecate on human food, thereby transmitting to it bacteria, protozoan cysts, and helminth ova. Cockroaches are also a common cause of allergies and asthma.

American c. The largest of the common cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), capable of flight, native to Africa but carried worldwide on ships, and found in tropical and subtropical climates. Allergens derived from P. americana are abbreviated Per a by the World Health Organization. SYN: waterbug.

Australian c. A small cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae), similar to but smaller than the American cockroach, native to Asia but carried worldwide on ships, and found in tropical and subtropical climates.

German c. A small, flightless cockroach (Blattella germanica) that is a common pest in urban areas. SYN: croton bug.

oriental c. A large cockroach (Blatta orientalis) that prefers dark, moist places and is often found around decaying organic matter, and in sewers, drains, and damp basements SYN: waterbug.


(kok′tāl″) 1. A combination of drugs used to treat a disease that would not respond adequately to any of them given alone. 2. An alcoholic drink containing spirits and other ingredients.

lytic c. A mixture of analgesic and phenothiazine derivatives used in anesthesia as a premedication.

cocoa butter

(kō′kō″) Theobroma oil; the fat obtained from the roasted seed of Theobroma cacao. It is used as a base in suppositories and as a topical skin lubricant.


(kō-kŏn′ shŭs-nĕs) Awareness of objects, ideas, or thoughts at the fringe of consciousness.

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