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Linked to polypeptides; not freely circulating in the plasma. Drugs or toxins that are heavily proteinbound have less impact on body receptors and metabolic functions than those that circulate in a free (unbound) state.

protein-calorie malnutrition

SEE: under malnutrition.

protein catabolic rate

ABBR: PCR. In patients receiving hemodialysis, the quantity of urea that appears in the blood between two dialysis sessions, a function of the amino acid content of the patient's diet.

protein chip

A tool for evaluating very large numbers of proteins, e.g., the entire proteome of an organism, using DNA microarray technology. Uses include the evaluation of interactions between proteins and other molecules; the development of new drugs; and the diagnosis of diseases, such as immunological disorders, in which small concentrations of abnormal proteins or antigens occur in body fluids.

protein correlation profiling

Protein profiling.

protein digestibility corrected amino acid score

ABBR: PDCASS. A measure of a food source's amino acid content and its ability to deliver that content to growing children (its digestibility). The PDCASS is used by relief agencies to compare the protein content of foods used to prevent and treat malnutrition in impoverished, undernourished children. It is based on the total nitrogen content of a food source, the percent of essential amino acids in the food, and the ability of a child to absorb those amino acids from the food. Foods that have optimal PDCASS scores include soybeans and egg whites.

protein folding

The shaping of a protein into its unique three-dimensional conformation from the linked amino acids of which it is composed.

protein kinase

An enzyme that activates or inactivates cell proteins or enzymes by adding a phosphate moiety, thereby changing cell functions.

protein misfolding disease

Any abnormality that prevents a polypeptide chain from achieving its usual structure in the body, rendering it functionally abnormal or inactive. Examples include sickle cell disease, in which a single genetic substitution makes hemoglobin molecules distorted under low oxygen tension, or Alzheimer disease, in which structurally abnormal amyloid plaques build up in the brain, causing dementia.


(prō″tē″(ĭ-)nō′sĭs) [protein + -osis] Accumulation of excess proteins in the tissues.

alveolar p. Pulmonary alveolar p.

lipoid p. A rare autosomal recessive condition resulting from an unknown metabolic defect. Yellow deposits of a mixture of protein and lipoid occur, esp. on the mucous surface of the mouth and tongue. Nodules may appear on the face, extremities, and epiglottis and vocal cords, the latter producing hoarseness.


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