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  1. Explain the need for an integrated approach to training.

  2. Identify the various parameters of physical fitness that should be considered when designing exercise programs.

  3. Identify key training principles that apply to all exercise programs.

  4. Describe a general programming model incorporating macrocycles, mesocycles, and microcycles.

  5. Explain Hans Seyle's general adaptation syndrome and its application to exercise.

  6. Describe the concepts of overtraining and fatigue, and their physiological impact on the systems of the body.

  7. Identify key physiological adaptations associated with exercise.


Visit DavisPlus at for study and practice resources, including online quizzes, animations that help explain physiological processes, podcasts concerning news and career trends in exercise physiology, and practice references.



  • Ashley is a college sophomore who recently started an exercise regimen but lacks a strong understanding of the science behind exercise programming and behavioral change. Her knowledge is limited to her own exercise history, ideas shared by friends, and what she has read in consumer magazines (e.g., celebrity workouts). Consequently, Ashley's program emphasizes aerobic exercise with little resistance training, and the weight training she does perform involves high-volume, muscle isolation-type workouts at lower intensities out of fear of bulking up. Ashley has struggled with her weight for several years, and has started and stopped multiple weight-loss efforts in the past. Once again, she started out enthusiastically, anticipating a quick drop in weight and improvement in her appearance, but after 6 weeks, she has lost very little weight. She is disappointed and reluctant to continue exercising. She decides to hire Sam, a personal trainer at her university's athletic center, to help her develop a program and keep her on track.

    What are some of the physical and psychological barriers that are inhibiting Ashley's success, and how can Sam help her overcome them?

  • It is important for Sam to teach Ashley some of the basic principles of exercise training, particularly the concept of proper progression. But first, Sam can help her with a goal-setting process that takes the focus off the bathroom scale and onto more meaningful objectives. The idea is to explore why Ashley wants to lose weight. Is it simply to improve her appearance, or are there health-related reasons for her desire to get fit? Does her motivation for change come from within, or do other individuals hassle her about her weight fluctuations? Understanding the true impetus behind why Ashley hired him will allow Sam to help her set goals that can serve as steppingstones of success. Once those goals are established, Sam and Ashley can work together to develop a progressive exercise program that will allow Ashley to experience multiple successes along the way.

  • After a few months of working with Sam, Ashley has begun to experience her first real success with an exercise program. With Sam's encouragement, she is eating better, has lost some weight, and perhaps most importantly, reports an ...

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