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Abdominal Series: Performed to test if there is central inhibition related to weakness of the lower extremities. There are four separate components to the supine abdominal series.

Abnormal Rhythms: Movement patterns that do not follow the expected kinematics of the joint in question (i.e., poor scapulohumeral rhythm).

Accessory: Motions that are considered to be synonymous with arthrokinematic movement. They consist of motions that are available within a joint that may accompany the classical (osteokinematic) movements or those that may be passively produced apart from the classical movement. Accessory movements are necessary for normal kinematics and subsequent joint function. See Arthrokinematic.

Accessory Soft Tissue Movement Testing: Performed by passively moving soft tissues in all directions.

Acetabular Anteversion: The orientation of the acetabulum in an anterior direction. This structural feature is an important determinant of hip joint stability. Acetabular anteversion that is larger than the normal values of 18.5 degrees and 21.5 degrees for males and females, respectively, may render the hip susceptible to anterior dislocation.

Active Insufficiency: Occurs when a multijoint muscle reaches a length (shortened) where it can no longer apply an effective force.

Active Range of Motion (AROM): Motion occurring entirely through the volition of the individual, that is produced through active muscle contraction.

Active Movement: See Active Range of Motion (AROM).

Active Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs): Trigger points that produce symptoms, including local tenderness and pain, referral of pain or other paresthesias to a distant site, with peripheral and central sensitization.

Active Subsystem: Relative to the spine, comprises contractile skeletal muscle and is most involved in contributing to stability within the neutral zone.

Actual Resting Position: Used when it is impossible, difficult, or impractical to achieve the true resting position. The therapist places the joint in the position in which the least amount of tension is elicited and where the patient reports the least discomfort.

Acture: A term that recognizes that posture is a dynamic neuromuscular state that allows a person to be prepared for action.

Acute Phase Response (APR): A nonspecific reaction that occurs when the inflammation that is produced by repetitive activity, trauma, or infection is sufficient to alter the capabilities of the humoral components of the immune system.

Acute Response Proteins (ARPs): Humoral defensive components whose concentration is depressed in response to a complex network of molecular and cellular responses.

Acute Stage: Stage characterized by a progressive increase in signs and symptoms. During this stage, it is critical that the therapist provide intervention only if it will aid in the reparative process.

Adaptive Shortening: May result from prolonged immobility. Muscles and their connective tissue structures reduce in length, leading to restricted movement that eventually impacts the joint over which the muscles lie.


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