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After studying this chapter the reader should be able to:

  • 12.1 Describe the concept of energy balance.

  • 12.2 List the factors that affect an individual's ability to maintain weight.

  • 12.3 Describe how the determinants of energy balance change with aging.

  • 12.4 List the major physical activity recommendations of the federal government's Physical Activity Guidelines.

  • 12.5 Describe how the prevalence of obesity has changed over the past 20 years and list several reasons for the increase.

  • 12.6 Explain how the hormones ghrelin, peptide YY, leptin, insulin, and adiponectin affect hunger and satiety.

  • 12.7 List five health conditions that result from obesity.

  • 12.8 Define and describe the term metabolically healthy obesity.

  • 12.9 Provide a list of five tips to offer athletes who would like to gain weight or muscle mass.

  • 12.10 Define what it means to adopt a healthy lifestyle.

  • 12.11 Describe what factors increase the likelihood of sustained weight loss maintenance.

  • 12.12 Provide a list of five tips to offer athletes who would like to lose weight or muscle mass.



  • adiponectin A hormone produced by fat cells; it increases insulin sensitivity and stimulates fat breakdown. Low levels may contribute to an increased risk for insulin resistance and diabetes.

  • android body type "Apple shaped"; body tends to carry excess fat around the abdomen.

  • caloric deficit The net expenditure of calories created when calories expended exceed calories consumed.

  • energy balance The relationship of calories consumed with calories expended.

  • energy expenditure The amount of calories burned by the body in a 24-hour period.

  • gastric bypass A weight-loss procedure in which a surgeon reduces the stomach to about the size of an egg and then reattaches it to the small intestine, thereby "bypassing" most of the stomach.

  • ghrelin The "hunger hormone"; a hormone released by the stomach in response to low energy levels in the body, which signals hunger.

  • gynoid body type "Pear shaped"; body tends to carry excess fat around the hips and thighs.

  • insulin A hormone secreted by the pancreas that is required for the transport of glucose from blood into tissues.

  • leptin A hormone produced by adipose tissue that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure; levels increase with increased fat storage. Obesity is associated with leptin resistance.

  • lifestyle changes Changes made to daily routines or habits; in this instance, changes are made to create a healthier lifestyle.

  • motivational interviewing A collaborative communication technique in which the client and coach work together to help the client develop a plan of action for behavior change.

  • negative energy balance When fewer calories are consumed than expended; leads to weight loss.

  • neutral energy balance When the number of calories consumed is equal to the number of calories expended.

  • peptide YY (PYY) An appetite suppressant released by the small intestine.

  • phytochemicals A variety of compounds found in plants that may have potential health benefits in humans.

  • positive energy balance When more ...

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