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Part II: Upper-Extremity Testing: Introduction


On completion of Part II, you will be able to:

  1. Identify:

    • appropriate planes and axes for each upper-extremity joint motion

    • normal ranges of motion for each upper-extremity joint

    • structures that limit the end of the range of motion (ROM)

    • expected normal end-feels

  2. Describe:

    • testing positions used for each upper-extremity joint motion and muscle length test

    • goniometer alignment for each motion and muscle length test

    • capsular pattern of restricted motion

    • range of motion necessary for selected functional activities at each major upper-extremity joint

  3. Explain:

    • how age, gender, and other factors can affect the range of motion

    • how sources of error in measurement can affect testing results

  4. Perform goniometric measurement of joint ROM and muscle length testing for the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand that includes:

    • a clear explanation of the testing procedure

    • proper placement of the individual in the testing position

    • adequate stabilization

    • correct determination of the end of the motion

    • correct identification of the end-feel

    • palpation of the appropriate bony landmarks

    • accurate alignment of the goniometer and correct reading and recording of goniometric measurements

  5. Plan goniometric measurements of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand that are organized by body position.

  6. Assess intratester and intertester reliability of the reader's goniometric measurements of the upper -extremity joints using the statistical methods described in Chapter 3.

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