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training effect

The physiological response of the body to regular repetitive exercise. Beneficial effects include a slower heart rate, lower blood pressure, decreased blood cholesterol levels, increased muscle strength, better oxygen and glucose extraction from the blood, and improvement in mood.


ABBR: TOF. A monitoring protocol for counting the number of contractions produced by peripheral nerve stimulators in patients who have received neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) such as Pavulon and vecuronium. When NMBAs are used, staff may be unable to use normal assessment techniques of neurological function.

PATIENT CARE: In TOF, electrodes are placed on the patient’s wrist, and the number of thumb twitches is counted. After the NMBA infusion is begun, thumb twitches are measured every 30 min for 2 hr to ensure the appropriate level of paralysis has been reached. The absence of contractions indicates that too much NMBA is being given; 1 to 2 twitches indicate the appropriate level of drug is being administered, and 3 to 4 twitches indicate the need to increase the infusion rate. Once the desired level is reached, response to peripheral nerve stimulation is measured every 4 hr.

 Since patients retain sensory nerve function and awareness of their surroundings, analgesics and sedatives are usually administered concurrently. Whether TOF augments clinical assessment of neuromuscular blockade is controversial; it may be more useful with some neuromuscular blocking agents, e.g., vecuronium than others.


(trāt) A distinguishing feature; a characteristic or property of an individual.

acquired t. A trait that is not inherited; one resulting from the effects of the environment.

complex t. An inherited condition, such as height, whose phenotype is determined by multiple genes. Complex traits are not inherited in simple Mendelian fashion.

inherited t. A trait due to genes transmitted through germ cells.

personality t. An enduring pattern of perceiving, communicating, and thinking about oneself, others, and the environment that is exhibited in multiple contexts. SEE: personality disorder.

quantitative t. A trait that results from a complex interaction of multiple genes, or from both genetic inheritance and environmental pressure.

sickle cell t. The condition of being heterozygous with respect to hemoglobin S, the gene responsible for sickle cell anemia. In people with sickle cell trait, each red blood cell has one copy each of hemoglobin A and hemoglobin S. These cells will not become sickled until extremely low concentrations of oxygen occur. SEE: hemoglobin S disease.


(tră-jĕk′tor) [L. trajectus, thrown across] A device for determining the approximate location of a bullet in a wound.


transfusion-related acute lung injury.

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