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spot compression

SEE: under compression.

spotted fever SEE: under fever.

spotting

The appearance of blood-tinged discharge from the vagina, usually between menstrual periods or at the onset of labor.

spouse

1. A partner in marriage. 2. A life partner. spousal, adj.

spp

species (plural).

sprain

(sprān) [O.Fr. espraindre, to wring] Trauma to ligaments that causes pain and disability, depending on the degree of injury to the ligaments. In the most severe sprain, ligaments are completely torn. The ankle joint is the most often sprained. SEE: table; fracture; strain.

 SYMPTOMS: Pain may be accompanied by heat, discoloration, and localized swelling in the affected area. Moderate to severe sprains are marked by joint laxity, reduced range of motion, and limitation of function. When the sprained ligament is contiguous with the joint capsule, e.g., anterior talofibular ligament, medial collateral ligament, swelling occurs in the acute stage. When the sprain involves other intracapsular or extracapsular ligaments, e.g., calcaneofibular ligament, anterior cruciate ligament, swelling is slight or absent in the acute stage and progressively increases.

 DIAGNOSIS: Diagnostic imaging of the joint is often indicated to rule out an avulsion fracture of the ligament’s attachment, or other associated fracture

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Grading System for Sprains
Grade I Stretching of the ligament without tearing
Grade II Stretching of the ligament with incomplete tearing
Grade III Complete tearing of the ligament (also called a rupture)

 TREATMENT: The affected part should be treated initially with ice or other cooling agents to limit inflammation and hypoxic injury. Circumferential compression, in the form of an elastic wrap, should be applied to the joint and the limb elevated to reduce swelling. Joint range of motion should be restricted to patient tolerance through the use of immobilization devices, crutches, or both. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications may be administered for pain and swelling. In the chronic stage of the injury, massage, intermittent compression, and muscle contractions can be used to reduce swelling.

acromioclavicular s. A sprain to the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments, commonly caused by a fall on an outstretched arm or a blow directly to the shoulder. SYN: acromioclavicular separation; shoulder separation.

s. of ankle Trauma to the ligaments of the ankle and foot, possibly involving tendon injury, but without an avulsion. Sprains of the lateral ligaments (most commonly the anterior talofibular ligament) account for approx. 90% of all ankle sprains.

 TREATMENT: SEE: sprain for treatment.

image Ice should not be applied directly to the foot and ankle in patients who are older or who have cold allergy ...

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