An instrument composed of two ureteral catheters for securing urine from each kidney separately.
75Selenium-labeled artificial bile salt (a homolog to taurocholate).
(sē′zhŭr) 1. A convulsion or other clinically detectable event caused by a sudden discharge of electrical activity in the brain. 2. A sudden attack of pain, disease, or specific symptoms.
absence s. Seizure in which there is a sudden, brief lapse of consciousness, usually for about 2 to 10 sec. The patient resumes activity as if the seizure had not occurred. The seizure may be induced by voluntary hyperventilation for 2 to 3 min. This type of attack is characteristic of petit mal epilepsy and may recur repeatedly if it is not recognized and treated. It also may progress to a generalized tonic-clonic seizure.
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: The patient (typically a child) shows a blank facial expression that may be accompanied by movements such as repeated blinking or rolling of the eyes, or lip smacking and minor myoclonus of the upper extremities or neck. There is no convulsion or fall.
DIAGNOSIS: The only diagnostic test for absence seizures is an electroencephalogram. Brain scans, as by an magnetic resonance imaging, can help rule out other diseases, e.g., stroke or a brain tumor.
TREATMENT: Treatment with valproate or other anticonvulsants is effective for controlling absence seizures in approx. 75% of patients.
PATIENT CARE: The time, duration, patient’s expression, and any repetitive movements occurring during the seizure are observed and documented, as is the patient’s postseizure response. Prescribed medications are administered and evaluated for desired effects and adverse reactions. Support, reassurance, and education regarding the condition as well as drug actions and side effects are provided to the patient and family, and they are encouraged to discuss their feelings and concerns and to ask questions. SEE: epilepsy.
acute symptomatic s. A seizure that results either from abnormal metabolic conditions that affect normal brain function or toxic exposures (such as alcohol or drug withdrawal, electrolyte disturbances, overwhelming infections, or toxins) or from structural lesions in the brain (such as brain trauma or central nervous system masses). SYN: provoked seizure.
breakthrough s. A seizure that occurs despite the use of therapeutic concentrations of a previously effective antiepileptic drug.
complex s. A seizure in which the patient suffers a loss of consciousness.
convulsive s. 1. A convulsion. 2. An attack of epilepsy. SEE: epilepsy.
dissociative s. A psychogenic, nonepileptic seizure, i.e., a pseudo seizure.
dyscognitive s. Complex partial seizure.
febrile s. A seizure that lasts less than 15 min and that ...