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(rĭng′wŭrm) Any contagious skin infection caused by fungi of the genera Microsporum or Trichophyton. The hallmark of these conditions is a well-defined red rash, with an elevated, wavy, or worm-shaped border. Ringworm of the scalp is called tinea capitis; of the body, tinea corporis; of the groin, tinea cruris; of the hand, tinea manus; of the beard, tinea barbae; of the nails, tinea unguium; and of the feet, tinea pedis or athlete’s foot.

Rinne test

(rĭn′nē) [Heinrich Adolf Rinne, Ger. otologist, 1819–1868] The use of a tuning fork to compare bone conduction hearing with air conduction. The vibrating fork is held by its stem on the mastoid process of the ear until the patient no longer hears it. Then it is held close to the external auditory meatus. If the subject still hears the vibrations, air conduction exceeds bone conduction (this is the normal finding). SEE: Weber test.


1. To wash lightly. 2. A solution used for irrigation or bathing.

mouth r. A flavored or medicated solution swirled in the mouth, used to treat halitosis, oral infections, apthous ulcers, stomatitis, or dental biofilm (plaque).

image Some alcoholics may occasionally abuse alcohol-based mouth rinses.


1. Softening, effacement, and dilation before labor. SEE: Bishop’s score; prostaglandin. 2. Maturation of a cataract.

cervical r. SEE: cervical ripening.

rippling muscle disease

A rare autosomal dominant muscle disease whose symptoms include spontaneous muscle contraction when muscles are stimulated by stretching, percussion, or squeezing. Affected patients are usually recognized during childhood. They may demonstrate weakness of facial muscles, frequent falls, or difficulty walking on their heels or toes as a result of calf muscle weakness.


(risk) The probability that a loss or something dangerous or harmful will occur.

acceptable r. A tolerable level of harm or potential harm.

additional r. Attributable fraction.

attributable r. Attributable fraction.

R. for infection An immunocompromised state.

material r. A significant potential for harm that a reasonable person would want to consider when making a decision about undergoing a medical or surgical treatment.

population attributable r. The proportion of cases of a disease that result from exposure to a specific risk factor.

relative r. In epidemiological studies, the relative amount of disease occurring in different populations; the ratio of incidence rate in the exposed group to that in the unexposed group. SEE: odds ratio.

sibling r. The probability that a brother or sister of a person with a disease will also contract the disease contrasted with the ...

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