(rĭ-vŭl′shŭn) 1. Repugnance, hostility, or extreme distaste for a person or thing. 2. The act of driving backward, as diverting disease from one part to another by a quick withdrawal of blood from that part—a treatment that has its origins in ancient medical care. 3. Circulatory changes obtained by sudden and intense reactions to heat and cold. SEE: counterirritation.
(rĭ-vŭl′sĭv) 1. Causing revulsion. 2. A counterirritant.
1. In behavioral science, a positive reinforcement. 2. Something valuable given to recognize achievement, competence, or performance.
Restoring a hypothermic patient’s body temperature to normal. Techniques used include removing wet clothing; wrapping patients in blankets, hotpacks, or foils; infusing intravenous, nasogastric, or intraperitoneal fluids warmed to about 40°C; increasing the temperature of the patient’s blood with extracorporeal bypass machines, or, rarely, immersing the patient in warm water.
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test
(ra) A neuropsychiatric test used to measure the ability to recall a list of heard words. The test is sometimes used to evaluate the memory of patients with dementia.
(rī) [Ralph Douglas Kenneth Reye, Australian pathologist, 1912–1977] A syndrome marked by acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the liver and often of the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes. The mortality rate depends on the severity of the central nervous system involvement but may be as high as 80%.
INCIDENCE: The syndrome is rare, seen primarily in children under age 19 after an acute viral infection such as chickenpox or influenza.
CAUSES: The cause of the disease is unknown, but its association with increased use of aspirin and other salicylates is evident from epidemiological studies. After public health advisories recommended avoiding aspirin use in children and adolescents, the rate of hospitalization from Reye syndrome dropped to less than 1 per million.
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: The patient experiences a viral infection with a brief recovery period, followed in about 1 to 3 days by severe nausea and vomiting, a change in mental status (disorientation, agitation, coma, seizures), and hepatomegaly without jaundice in 40% of cases. The disease should be suspected in any child with acute onset of encephalopathy, nausea and vomiting, or altered liver function, esp. after a recent illness. The severity of the syndrome depends on how badly the brain swells during the illness, reflected in increased intracranial pressure (ICP).
Aspirin and other salicylates should not be used for any reason in treating children under age 18 with viral infections.
TREATMENT: Supportive care includes intravenous administration of fluids and electrolytes, administration of corticosteroids, and ventilatory assistance. Electrolytes, levels of serum glucose and ammonia, ...