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(prē″măk-sĭl′ă) [L. prae, before, in front of, + maxilla, jawbone] A separate bone, derived from the median nasal process embryologically, that fuses with the maxilla in humans; formerly called the incisive bone.


(prē″med″ĭ-kā′shŏn) [pre- + medication] 1. Administration of drugs before treatment to enhance comfort, therapeutic effect, and/or safety of a given procedure. 2. Preanesthetic. premedicate (prē″med′ ĭ-kāt″), v.


(prē″mĕ-năr′kăl) [″ + Gr. men, mouth, + arche, beginning] Pert. to the time before the first menstrual period.


(prē-mĕn′stroo-ăl) [″ + menstruare, to discharge the menses] Before menstruation.

premenstrual dysphoric disorder

ABBR: PMDD. A disorder characterized by symptoms such as markedly depressed mood, anxiety, affective lability, and decreased interest in activities. It is the current term, according to DSM-IV, for what was previously known as premenstrual tension syndrome, now PMDD. Although the term premenstrual syndrome also is commonly used, it is not the technical term for this disorder, but may be used to identify a milder and less debilitating form of the disorder. SYN: premenstrual tension syndrome.

 SYMPTOMS: In patients with this disease, the symptoms occur regularly during the last week of the luteal phase in most menstrual cycles during the year preceding diagnosis. These symptoms begin to remit within a few days of the onset of the menses (the follicular phase) and are always absent the week following menses.

 DIAGNOSIS: Five or more of the following symptoms must be present most of the time during the last week of the luteal phase, with at least one of the symptoms being one of the first four: feeling sad, hopeless, or self-deprecating; feeling tense, anxious, or on edge; marked lability of mood interspersed with frequent tearfulness; persistent irritability, anger, and increased interpersonal conflicts; decreased interest in usual activities, which may be associated with withdrawal from social relationships; difficulty concentrating; feeling fatigued, lethargic, or lacking in energy; marked changes in appetite, which may be associated with binge eating or craving certain foods; hypersomnia or insomnia; a subjective feeling of being overwhelmed or out of control; and physical symptoms such as breast tenderness or swelling, headaches, or sensation of bloating or weight gain, with tightness of fit of clothing, shoes, or rings. There may also be muscle pain. The symptoms may be accompanied by suicidal thoughts.

 The pattern of symptoms must have occurred most months for the previous 12 months. The symptoms disappear completely shortly after the onset of menstruation. In atypical cases, some women also have symptoms for a few days around ovulation; and a few women with short cycles might, therefore, be symptom-free for only 1 week per cycle. Women commonly report that their symptoms worsen with age until relieved by the onset ...

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