(fos′fă-tās″) [phosphate + -ase] One of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid esters. They are important in the absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and phospholipids and are essential in the calcification of bone.
acid p. ABBR: ACP. A phosphatase whose optimum pH is between 4.0 and 5.4. It is present in kidney, semen, serum, and prostate gland, and particularly in osteoclasts or odontoclasts in which it is associated with demineralization or resorption of bone and teeth.
alkaline p. ABBR: ALP. An enzyme whose optimal pH is about 9.8. It is present in the liver, kidneys, intestines, teeth, plasma, and developing bone. Alkaline phosphatase levels greater than 300% of normal usually signify cholestatic disorders like obstructive jaundice or intrahepatic biliary disease.
CDc25 p. A group of intracellular enzymes that regulate cell division, some of which may contribute to the conversion of normal cells to cancer cells.
placental alkaline p. ABBR: PLAP. A form of heat-stable alkaline phosphatase released by trophoblast cells in the human placenta, i.e., during pregnancy. Cancers of colon, lung, ovary, and testes, esp. seminoma, produce the enzyme ectopically.
phosphatase and tensin homologue
(fäs-fŭ-tās and ten-sin hō-mŭ-lŏg) ABBR: PTEN. A protein that inhibits cellular growth factor signaling and acts as a tumor suppressor. Abnormal PTEN expression (or PTEN deletion) is found in several cancers, including prostate cancer.
(fos′fāt″) [phosph(orus) + -ate] Any salt of phosphoric acid containing the radical PO4. Phosphates are important in the maintenance of the acid-base balance of the blood, the principal ones being monosodium and disodium phosphate. The former is acid, the latter alkaline. In the blood, because of their low concentration, they exert a minor buffering action.
acid p. A phosphate in which only one or two hydrogen atoms of phosphoric acid have been replaced by a metal. SYN: superphosphate.
calcium p. Any one of three salts of calcium and phosphate; used as an antacid and dietary supplement.
creatine p. Phosphocreatine.
triple p. Calcium, ammonium, and magnesium phosphate.
(fŏs″fă-tē′mē-ă) [Gr. phosphas, phosphate, + haima, blood] Phosphates in the blood.
(fŏs-fă-tī′dăl-kō′lĭn, lēn) [″ + ″] Lecithin.
(fŏs-fă-tī′dīl) ABBR: PG. A phospholipid found in amniotic fluid, pulmonary effluent, and semen. It first appears in amniotic fluid during week 36 of pregnancy, confirms fetal gestational age, and is an accurate predictor of fetal lung maturity.
(fäs-fŭ-tī-dĭl-i-nō-sŭ-tŏl) A molecule consisting of two ...