(paj′ĕ-toyd″) [Paget + -oid] Resembling Paget disease.
An assistive technology device for persons with limited or absent upper extremity movement; used to turn the pages of a book.
[Gr. pagos, fixation, thing fixed] Suffix meaning twins joined together at the site indicated in the initial part of the word.
(pān) [Fr. peine, fr L. poena, a fine, a penalty, punishment] As defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain, an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. Pain includes the perception of an uncomfortable stimulus and the response to that perception. About half of those who seek medical help do so because their primary complaint is pain. Pain may arise in nearly any organ system and may have different characteristics in each system. Acute pain occurs with an injury or illness; is often accompanied by anxiety, diaphoresis, nausea, and changes in vital signs (such as tachycardia or hypertension); and ends after the stimulus is removed or the organ heals. Chronic or persistent pain lasts beyond the normal healing period. Musculoskeletal pain is often exacerbated by movement and may be accompanied by swollen joints or muscle spasm. Myofascial pain is marked by trigger-point tenderness. Visceral pain is often diffuse or vaguely localized, but pain from the lining of body cavities is often localized precisely, very intense, and sensitive to palpation or movement. Nerve pain usually stings or burns; it may be described as numbness, tingling, or shooting sensations. Colicky pain fluctuates in intensity from severe to mild and usually occurs in waves. Referred pain results when an injury or disease occurs in one body part but is felt in another.
Several factors influence the experience of pain, such as the nature of the injury or illness causing the symptom, the physical and emotional health of the patient, the acuity or chronicity of the symptom, the social milieu and/or cultural upbringing of the patient, neurochemistry, memory, and personality. SEE: table.
Usual Adult Doses and Intervals of Drugs for Relief of Pain
|Nonopioid Analgesics || |
|Generic Name ||Dose, mg* ||Interval ||Comments |
|Acetylsalicylic acid ||325–650 ||4–24 hr ||Enteric-coated preparations available |
|Acetaminophen ||650 ||4 hr ||Avoid in liver failure |
|Ibuprofen ||400–800 ||4–8 hr ||Available without prescription |
|Indomethacin ||25–75 ||8 hr ||Gastrointestinal and kidney side effects common |
|Naproxen ||250–500 ||12 hr ||Delayed effects may be due to long half-life |
|Ketorolac ||15–60 IM ||4–6 hr ||Similar to ibuprofen but more potent |
|Opioid Analgesics || |
|Generic Name ||Parenteral Dose (mg) ||PO Dose (mg) ||Comments |
|Codeine ||30–60 every 4 hr ||30–60 every 4 hr ||Nausea common |
|Hydromorphone ||1–2 every ...|