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[L. inspectare, to examine] To examine visually.


Visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements and posture. SEE: abdomen; chest; circulatory system.


(ĭn″spĭr-ā′shŭn) [L. in, in, + spirare, to breathe] Inhalation; drawing air into the lungs; the opposite of expiration. The average rate is 12 to 18 respirations per minute in a normal adult at rest. SEE: diaphragm for illus.; respiration.

 Inspiration may be costal or abdominal, the latter being deeper. The muscles involved in forceful inspiration are the external intercostals, diaphragm, levatores costarum, pectoralis minor, scaleni, serratus posterior, superior sternocleidomastoid, and sometimes the platysma.

crowing i. The peculiar noise heard in stridor or croup. SEE: croup, spasmodic.

forcible i. Inspiration in which the muscles of inspiration are assisted by accessory muscles of respiration, such as the sternocleidomastoids, intercostals, and serratus posterior. Forced inspiration is normal during vigorous exercise, but indicative of hypoxia, hypercarbia, or acidosis when it occurs at rest.

full i. Inspiration in which the lungs are filled as completely as possible (voluntarily, as in determining the vital capacity, or involuntarily, as in cardiac dyspnea).

sustained maximal i. A deep-breathing maneuver that mimics the normal physiological sigh mechanism. The patient inspires from a resting expiratory level up to maximum inspiratory capacity, with a pause at end inspiration.


(ĭn-spīr′ă-tor″e) Pert. to inspiration.

inspiratory capacity

The maximum amount of air a person can breathe in after a resting expiration.

inspiratory hold

A ventilating maneuver in which the delivered volume of gas is held in the lung for a while before expiration.


(ĭn-spĭs′āt) [L. inspissatus, thickened] To thicken by evaporation or absorption of fluid.


(ĭn-spĭs′ā-tĕd) Thickened by absorption, evaporation, or dehydration.


(ĭn-spĭ-sā′shŭn) 1. Thickening by evaporation or absorption of fluid. 2. Diminished fluidity or increased thickness.


(in″stă-bil′ĭt-ē) The lack of ability to maintain alignment of bony segments, usually due to torn or lax ligaments and weak muscles.

bladder i. Overactive bladder

detrusor i. A physiological mechanism in which contractions of the muscles of the urinary bladder during the filling phase of a urodynamic study or during coughing, sneezing, or other activities result in an increase of intra-abdominal pressures. Such a pressure increase may lead to urinary urges or to urinary incontinence, esp. in women. Some experts believe that detrusor instability is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in ...

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