(noo′trŏ-fil″, nū′, -fīl″) [neutro- + -phile] ABBR: NE. A granular white blood cell (WBC), the most common type (55% to 70%) of WBC. Neutrophils are responsible for much of the body’s protection against infection. They play a primary role in inflammation, are readily attracted to foreign antigens (chemotaxis), and destroy them by phagocytosis. Neutrophils killed during inflammation release destructive enzymes and toxic oxygen radicals that eradicate infectious microorganisms. An inadequate number of neutrophils (neutropenia) leaves the body at high risk for infection from many sources and requires protective precautions on the part of health care workers. Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, which destroys leukocytes, must be carefully protected from infections during the course of therapy and until the bone marrow produces additional leukocytes.
As part of a severe inflammatory response or autoimmune disorder, neutrophils may begin attacking normal cells and cause tissue damage. This occurs in adult respiratory distress syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, myocarditis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Corticosteroids are the most commonly used drugs to minimize the damage caused by severe inflammation. SYN: neutrophilic leukocyte. SEE: illus; blood for illus.
two segmented neutrophils
polysegmented n. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalcin
(noo′trŏ-fil″ jĕl′ăt-ĭ-nās″ă-sō′s(h)ē-āt″ĕd lip″ō-kal′sin) ABBR: NGAL. A 25 kDa protein first identified in neutrophils, used as a potential biomarker of acute kidney injury.
(nū″trō-fĭl′ē-ă) Increase in the number of neutrophils in the blood, e.g., as a result of inflammation, infection, corticosteroid drugs, or malignancies.
(nū-trō-fĭl′ĭk, -trŏf′ĭ-lŭs) [″ + Gr. philein, to love] Staining readily with neutral dyes.
(nē′voyd) [″ + Gr. eidos, form, shape] Resembling a nevus.
(nē′vōs) [L. naevus, birthmark] Spotted or marked with nevi. SEE: nevus.
(nē′vŭs, nē′vī″) pl. nevi [L. naevus, birthmark] 1. A congenital discoloration of a circumscribed area of the skin due to pigmentation. SYN: birthmark; mole. 2. A circumscribed vascular tumor of the skin, usually congenital, due to hyperplasia of the blood vessels. SEE: angioma.
n. araneus Spider angioma.
blue n. A dark blue nevus covered by smooth skin. It is composed of melanin-pigmented spindle cells in the mid-dermis.
blue rubber bleb n. An erectile, easily compressible, bluish, cavernous hemangioma present in the skin and gastrointestinal tract.
capillary n. A nevus of dilated capillary vessels elevated above the skin. It is usually treated by ligature and excision.
compound n. A cluster of melanocytes found in both the epidermis and the dermis.