(nū″ră-lĕm-ō′mă) [″ + eilema, tight sheath, + oma, tumor] A firm, encapsulated fibrillar tumor of a peripheral nerve. SYN: neurinoma; schwannoma.
(nū-rĭ-nō′mă) [″ + oma, tumor] Neurilemmoma.
(noor′īt″) [neur- + -ite (1)] An axon or a dendrite. SEE: axon; dendrite.
(noo-rī′tĭs, nū-) [neuro- + -itis] Inflammation of a nerve, usually associated with a degenerative process. SEE: Guillain-Barré syndrome; polyneuritis.
SYMPTOMS: There are many forms of neuritis, which produce a variety of symptoms, including neuralgia in the part affected, hyperesthesia, paresthesia, dysesthesia, hypesthesia, anesthesia, muscular atrophy of the body part supplied by the affected nerve, paralysis, and lack of reflexes.
ETIOLOGY: Neuritis may be caused by mechanical factors, e.g., compression or contusion of the nerve, or localized infection involving direct infection of a nerve. It may accompany diseases such as leprosy, tetanus, tuberculosis, malaria, or measles. Toxins, esp. poisoning by heavy metals (arsenic, lead, mercury), alcohol, or carbon tetrachloride, may also be a cause. Neuritis may accompany thiamine deficiency, gastrointestinal dysfunction, diabetes, toxemias of pregnancy, or peripheral vascular disease.
PATIENT CARE: Changes in motor and sensory function are monitored. Correct positioning and prescribed analgesic drugs are used to relieve pain. Rest is provided, and affected extremities are rested by limiting their use and by using supportive appliances. Passive range-of-motion exercises are performed to help prevent contracture formation. Skin care is provided, and proper nutrition and dietary therapy are prescribed for metabolic disorders. Health care providers remove causative factors or counsel the patient about their avoidance. After pain subsides, prescribed activities are performed, e.g., massage, electrostimulation, and exercise.
ascending n. Neuritis moving upward along a nerve trunk away from the periphery.
axial n. Inflammation of the inner portion of a nerve.
degenerative n. Neuritis with rapid degeneration of a nerve.
descending n. Neuritis that leads away from the central nervous system toward the periphery.
disseminated n. Neuritis involving a large group of nerves.
interstitial n. Neuritis involving the connective tissue of a nerve.
intraocular n. Neuritis of the retinal fibers of the optic nerve causing disturbed vision, contracted field, enlarged blind spot, and fundus findings such as exudates, hemorrhages, and abnormal condition of the blood vessels. Treatment depends on the cause, e.g., brain tumor, meningitis, syphilis, nephritis, diabetes. SEE: optic n.
n. migrans Neuritis that ascends or descends, or neuritis that passes along a nerve trunk, affecting one area and then another.
multiple n. Neuritis that affects a number of peripheral nerves simultaneously. SYN: polyneuritis.