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lung-protective strategy

In patients treated with mechanical ventilation, the use of tidal volumes of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight or less for each machine-generated breath. Higher tidal volumes have been consistently associated with increased mortality in patients with acute lung injuries and acute respiratory distress syndrome. SYN: lung-protective ventilatory mechanical ventilation.

intraoperative l. The use of low tidal volumes (approx. 6 mL/breath), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and periodic lung recruitment measures during surgery. It lowers the postoperative rate of both respiratory and systemic complications of surgery performed under general anesthesia.

lungworm

(lŭng′wŏrm) Any of the nematodes of the order Strongylida that infest the lungs of humans and animals, esp. domestic and farm animals. Lungworms migrate to the lungs or respiratory tracts of their hosts, gradually damage the airways or lung tissue by exciting an inflammatory reaction within the tissue, and cause bronchitis or pneumonia. The parasites reproduce in the respiratory tissues.

rat l. A species (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) that commonly resides in the pulmonary arteries of rats and causes angiostrongyliasis.

lungwort

(lŭng′wort″, lŭng′wort″) Any plant of the species Pulmonaria, esp. P. officinalis, used in herbal medicine to treat ailments of the lungs such as bronchitis, coughs, and influenza.

lunula

(loo′nyŭ-lă, loo′nyŭ-lē″, loo′nyŭ-lī″) pl. lunulae [L. lunula, little moon] 1. A crescent-shaped area. 2. An active area of nailbed growth at the base of the fingernails and toenails. The cells develop and keratinize to form nails.

lupoid

(loo′poyd″) [lupus + -oid] 1. Resembling lupus. 2. Boeck sarcoid.

lupus

(loo′pŭs) [L. lupus, wolf] Originally, any chronic, progressive, usually ulcerating, skin disease. In current usage, when the word is used alone, it has no precise meaning.

discoid l. erythematosus ABBR: DLE. A chronic skin disease characterized by periodic acute appearances of a scaling, red, macular rash. SEE: autoimmune disease; systemic l. erythematosus.

 INCIDENCE: DLE is found in approx. 5% to 30% of patients who have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (esp. those who smoke), but it also may occur alone without other findings of SLE.

 CAUSES: DLE is caused by an autoimmune process involving both B-cell–and T-cell–mediated mechanisms that destroy the skin’s basal cells.

 SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Patients may complain of mild pruritus or occasional pain within the lesions, but most patients are asymptomatic. Approx. 5% of patients with DLE have accompanying systemic involvement. Patients may also have arthralgia or arthritis.

 DIAGNOSIS: The lesions of DLE are often characteristic. The primary lesion is an erythematous papule or plaque with slight to moderate scaling. As the lesion progresses, ...

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