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hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure

ABBR: HAAF. Failure of the body to stop releasing insulin, failure of the body to release the counter regulatory hormone glucagon, and failure of a patient to recognize his or her low blood sugar during treatment with glucose-lowering drugs.

hypoglycemia unawareness

The absence of symptoms of hypoglycemia (anxiety, confusion, palpitations, or sweating) in a patient with diabetes mellitus treated with insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. It occurs more often in people who frequently have low blood sugars. It can lead to alterations in consciousness and other medical emergencies.


(hī″pō-glī″kō-rā′kē-ă) [″ + ″ + rhachis, spine] A decreased concentration of glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid, such as is found in meningitis.


(hī-pŏg′nă-thŭs) [″ + gnathos, jaw] Having a lower jaw smaller than the upper jaw.


(hī″pō-gō′nad″izm) [hypo- + gonad + -ism] Inadequate production of sex hormones. SEE: hypogenitalism.

age-related h. A gradual decline in levels of plasma testosterone typically occurring in men entering the seventh decade of life. It has been associated with decreased libido, muscle strength, and well-being. The hypogonadism is suggested by the presence of a testosterone level less than 300 ng/dL (on two separate morning blood tests). It is uncertain whether testosterone replacement therapy is safe and effective.

primary h. Hypogonadism caused by atrophy, injury, or disease of the testes or ovaries. In primary hypogonadism, serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone are elevated.

secondary h. Hypogonadism in which low estrogen or testosterone levels are accompanied by low or normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.


(hī″pō-gŏn″ă-dō-trŏp′ĭsm) Low serum levels of gonadotropins. hypogonadotropic, adj.


(hī″pō-hī-drō′sĭs) [″ + hidros, sweat, + osis, condition] Diminished perspiration.


(hī″pō-hī-drā′shŭn) [″ + ″] The provision of less than the normal amount of water to the body to meet its metabolic demands. SEE: hyperhydration; euhydration; dehydration.


(hī″pō-in′sŭ-lin-ism) [hypo-+ insulin + -ism] A relative or absolute deficiency in either insulin secretion (as in type 1 diabetes), or in insulin dosing.


(hī″pō-kā-lē′mē-ă) [hypo- + L. kalium, potash + -emia] An abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood (less than 3.5 meq/L). SYN: hypopotassemia. SEE: hyperkalemia. hypokalemic (-lē′mĭk), adj.

 ETIOLOGY: Causes include deficient potassium intake or excess loss of potassium due to vomiting, diarrhea, or fistulas; metabolic acidosis; diuretic therapy; aldosteronism; excess adrenocortical secretion; renal tubule disease; and alkalosis.


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