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hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

Hemorrhaging in the newborn caused by an inadequate supply of prothrombin received from the mother or a delay in the establishment of the bacterial intestinal flora that produces vitamin K. Parenteral vitamin K given to the infant within 6 hr of birth prevents this condition.

hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

An arthropod-borne viral disease caused by the Hantavirus or related viruses. SEE: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.


(hem′ŏ-royd″) [L. haemorrhoidae fr. Gr. haimorrhoïdes, (veins) discharging blood] Veins of the internal or external hemorrhoidal plexuses and the immediately surrounding tissues. Hemorrhoids are most often referred to only when diseased, i.e., enlarged, painful, bleeding. Other anorectal conditions (such as, anal fissure, condylomata, anal cancers) may produce similar symptoms and must be distinguished from hemorrhoids by appropriate examination. SYN: piles. SEE: illus. SEE: Nursing Diagnoses Appendix.





 TREATMENT: Therapy depends on the severity of the symptoms, not the extent of the hemorrhoids. Often the only therapy required is improvement in anal care, adherence to appropriate fluid intake and diet, if necessary, and administration of stool softeners to prevent straining to have a bowel movement. Measures to reduce local pain and congestion include the temporary use of local anesthetic agents, lubrication, cold compresses, warm sitz baths, and thermal packs. The necessity of surgery or other direct intervention (such as latex band ligation, sclerotherapy, cryosurgery, infrared photocoagulation, laser surgery) need not be applied until the acuteperiod passes except in cases of significant bleeding, intractable pain, recurrent episodes, or other considerations. SEE: hemorrhoidectomy.

external h. A hemorrhoid located at or distal to the pectinate line (dentate margin), covered by anodermal epithelium or skin and extremely sensitive to most stimuli. SEE: hemorrhoid for illus.

internal h. A hemorrhoid located proximal to the pectinate line, covered by mucous membrane and relatively insensitive to direct noxious stimuli. SEE: hemorrhoid for illus.

mixed (or combined) h. A hemorrhoid that incorporates both internal and external components.

prolapsed h. The protrusion of an internal hemorrhoid through the anus.

strangulated h. A prolapsed hemorrhoid that is trapped by the anal sphincter, compromising blood flow to the vein in the hemorrhoid.


(hem″ŏ-royd′ăl) 1. Pert. to hemorrhoids. 2. Pert. to anal structures, e.g., the inferior hemorrhoidal nerve, hemorrhoidal venous plexuses, and inferior hemorrhoidal arteries.


(hem″ŏ-roy″dek′tŏ-mē) [hemorrhoid + -ectomy] The excision or destruction of hemorrhoids by traditional surgery, cryosurgery, laser surgery, stapling, infrared photocoagulation, latex band ligation, or sclerotherapy. The latter three modalities are used exclusively for internal hemorrhoids. SEE: Nursing Diagnoses Appendix.


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