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(gōld′ĕn-rod″) Any plant of the genus Solidago, which comprises about 120 species of flowering perennials, native mostly to North America. One species (S. virgaurea) is used in herbal and traditional medicine to treat inflammation and irritation of the kidneys caused by bacterial infections or by calculi.


(gōld′ĕn-sēl″) A perennial herb (Hydrasis canadensis) native to southeastern Canada and the eastern U.S., used in herbal remedies as an eyewash and as a treatment for irritated mucous membranes. llicit-drug users employ the herb to mask the results of drug-screening tests. It is also purported to enhance immunity. Although goldenseal is one of the top-selling herbal remedies, many commonly marketed products advertised as goldenseal contain adulterants (ingredients other than those in the natural herb). Goldenseal is an endangered plant species.

Golgi, Camillo

(gol′jē) Italian pathologist, 1843–1926.

G. apparatus A lamellar membranous organelle in almost all cells, best viewed by electron microscopy. It consists of curved parallel series of flattened sacs that are often expanded at their ends. In secretory cells, the apparatus concentrates and packages the secretory product. Its function in other cells, although apparently important, is poorly understood. SYN: Golgi complex.

G. cell A multipolar nerve cell in the cerebral cortex and posterior horns of the spinal cord. Type I possesses long axons; type II, short axons. SYN: Golgi neuron.

G. complex Golgi apparatus.

G. neuron Golgi cell.

G. tendon organ ABBR: GTO. A spindle-shaped structure at the junction of a muscle and a tendon. It functions as part of a feedback system that senses muscle tension through tendon stretch, inhibits muscle contraction of the agonist, and facilitates contraction of the antagonistic muscle. The purpose of this mechanism (autogenic facilitation) is to prevent overuse of and damage to the muscle and corresponding joint. SEE: autogenic facilitation.


The moment when a new information system becomes active.

Goll, Friedrich

(gol) Swiss anatomist, 1829–1903.

Gompertzian growth

(gäm-pŭrtz) [Gompertz, Benjamin, Brit. Mathematician (1779–1865)] In cancer biology, the exponential growth of a tumor followed by slowing, presumably as the resources the tumor is consuming are depleted.


(gō′nad″) [L. gonas, stem gonad-, fr. Gr. gonos, offspring, child] 1. The embryonic sex before differentiation into definitive testis or ovary. 2. A loose term for the female ovaries and the male testes. Each forms the cells necessary for human reproduction: spermatozoa from the testes, ova from the ovaries. SEE: estrogen; ovary; testicle; testosterone.

 HORMONES: Female: The follicles of the ovaries secrete estrogen, which helps regulate the menstrual cycle ...

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