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embolia cutis medicamentosa

(em-bō′lē-ă kūt′ĭs mĕ-dik″ă-mĕn-tō′să) Nicolau syndrome.

embolic

(ĕm-bŏl′ĭk) Pert. to or caused by embolism.

embolic protection filter

In interventional vascular procedures, a net or umbrella placed distal to the site of an angioplasty to capture debris that has been released by the procedure and that might occlude downstream vessels.

emboliform

(em-bol′ĭ-form″) [embolus + -form] 1. Resembling an embolus. 2. Wedge-shaped, as the nucleus emboliformis.

embolism

(em′bŏ-liĭzm) [embolus + -ism] A sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by debris. Blood clots, cholesterol-containing plaques, masses of bacteria, cancer cells, amniotic fluid, fat from the marrow of broken bones, and injected substances (such as air bubbles or particulate matter) all may lodge in blood vessels and obstruct them.

air e. An embolism caused by an air bubble.

 CAUSES: Air may enter a vessel postoperatively, during intravenous injections, after failure to purge intravenous lines, or as a result of rupture of a central line balloon. NOTE: A very small amount of air in a vessel or intravenous tubing is not hazardous.

 SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Symptoms include sudden onset of dyspnea, unequal breath sounds, hypotension, weak pulse, elevated central venous pressure, cyanosis, sharp chest pains, hemoptysis, a churning murmur over the precordium, and decreasing level of consciousness.

PATIENT CARE: When an air or gas embolism is suspected in the systemic venous circulation, echocardiography should be used to confirm its presence. The suspected site of gas entry should be secured and flooded with normal saline to prevent entry of more gas into the circulation. One hundred percent oxygen should be administered to the patient by nonrebreather mask. The patient should be immediately repositioned with the right atrium above the gas entry site, so that air will be trapped there and not move into the pulmonary circulation or the right side of the heart. A central venous catheter should be placed into the central venous circulation, and any gas bubbles and air should be aspirated from the catheter. Intravenous fluids and inotropic medications may be needed to support blood pressure and pulse.

Prevention: All air should be purged from the tubing of all IV administration sets before hookup and when solution bags or bottles are changed; air elimination filters should be used close to the patient; infusion devices with air detection capability should also be used, as well as locking tubing, locking connection devices, or taped connections. For central lines, to increase peripheral resistance and prevent air from entering the superior vena cava, the patient should be instructed to perform a Valsalva maneuver as the stylet is removed from the catheter, during attachment of ...

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