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(ĕ-kī″nŏ-kok′ŭs) [L. echinus, fr Gr echinos, hedgehog, sea urchin + coccus] A genus of very short tapeworms.

E. granulosus A species that infests dogs and other carnivores. Its hydatid (larva) develops in other mammals, including humans, and causes the formation of hydatid cysts in the liver or lungs. SYN: dog tapeworm. SEE: illus.; hydatid.





E. hydatidosus A species characterized by development of daughter cysts from the mother cyst. SEE: hydatid.

E. multilocularis A species that primarily infests foxes and moles. It is the cause of alveolar hydatid disease in humans, one of the deadliest helminthic infections.

E. vogeli A species that causes polycystic hydatid disease (a neotropical parasitic infection).


(ĕ-kī″nŏ-kok′ŭs, ĕ-kī″nŏ-kok′sī″) pl. echinococci A tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus.


(ĕ-kī′nŏ-sīt″) [Gr. echinos, hedgehog, sea urchin + -cyte] An abnormal erythrocyte with 10 to 30 regular spiny projections on its surface, seen in heart disease, stomach cancer, kidney disease, and dehydration.


(ek″ĭ-nos′tŏ-mă) [L. echinus, fr Gr echinos, hedgehog, sea urchin + stoma, mouth] A genus of flukes characterized by a spiny body and the presence of a collar of spines near the anterior end. They are found in the intestines of many vertebrates, esp. aquatic birds. They occasionally occur as accidental parasites in humans.


(ĕ-kin′yŭ-lāt″) Echinate.

Echis carinatus

(ĕ′kĭs kă-rĭ-nā′tŭs) [Gr. echis, viper + L carina, keel] The Indian saw-scaled viper. Its venom contains a prothrombin activator, a potent anticoagulant.


(ek′ō″) [Gr. ēkhō] A reverberating sound produced when sound waves are reflected back to their source.


(ĕk″ō-kăr′dē-ō-grăm″) The graphic record produced by echocardiography.


(ek″ō-kard″ē-og′ră-fē) [echo + cardiography] A noninvasive test that uses ultrasound to visualize cardiac structures. The chambers of the heart, ejection fraction, valves, and wall motion can be evaluated, and intracardiac masses or clots can often be seen. echocardiographic (ek″ō-kard″ē-ō-graf′ik), adj.

dobutamine stress e. ABBR: DSE. Echocardiography for coronary artery disease in which dobutamine is given to patients to increase the workload of the heart, and then the heart is evaluated with ultrasonic imaging. Regions of the heart that do not receive adequate blood flow (ischemic regions) contract poorly during the stress of the test but normally when the patient is at rest. Heart muscle that does not contract normally either at rest or with stimulation has ...

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