Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android

crack baby

SEE: under baby.


An adventitious lung sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by air passing over retained airway secretions or the sudden opening of collapsed airways. It may be heard on inspiration or expiration. A crackle is a discontinuous adventitious lung sound as opposed to a wheeze, which is continuous. Crackles are described as fine or coarse. SYN: rale. SEE: sounds, adventitious lung.

coarse c. Louder, rather long, low-pitched lung sounds. Coarse inspiratory and expiratory crackles indicate excessive airway secretion.

fine c. Soft, very short, high-pitched lung sounds. Fine, late-inspiratory crackles are often heard in pulmonary fibrosis and acute pulmonary edema.

late-inspiratory c. A discontinuous adventitious lung sound that is present in the latter half of inhalation.

PATIENT CARE: The presence of late-inspiratory crackles is indicative of restrictive lung disorders such as atelectasis or pulmonary fibrosis.


[AS. cradel] A lightweight frame placed over part of the bed and patient to provide protection of and prevent pressure on an injured or burned part or to contain either heat or cold.


An acronym for identifying potentially problematic uses of alcohol or drugs: Have you driven in Car with a user? Have you used the substance to Relax? Do you use Alone? Have you Forgotten something important while using? Have Friends (or) Family members) suggested that you cut down? Have you gotten into Trouble while using?


(kramp) 1. A pain, usually sudden and intermittent, of almost any area of the body, esp. abdominal and pelvic viscera. SEE: dysmenorrhea. 2. A painful, involuntary skeletal muscle contraction. SEE: systremma.

 TREATMENT: Therapy depends on the cause and location of the cramp. In muscular cramps, the muscle is extended and compressed, and heat and massage are applied.

artisan’s c. A cramp of one of the intrinsic muscles of the hand, esp. after overuse. SEE: focal dystonia.

dehydration c. Skeletal muscle spasm caused by the excess fluid and/or electrolyte loss that occurs with profuse sweating. The usual muscles affected are those used during work, i.e., the hand, arm, or leg muscles. The cramps may come on during work or up to 18 hr after completing a work shift.

 TREATMENT: The patient should be rehydrated by drinking cool water or an electrolyte-containing drink, such as diluted juice or a commercially marketed sports drink. The severity of the cramp can be decreased through passive stretching and/or massage of the muscle. Severe dehydration cramps may require the use of an intravenous electrolyte solution, such as normal saline or Ringer solution.


Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.