(kown″tĕr-ĭr″ĭ-tā′shŭn) Superficial irritation that relieves some other irritation of deeper structures.
(kown″tĕr-ō′pĕn-ĭng) [L. contra, against, + AS open, open] Relaxing incision.
(kown′tĕr-presh″ŭr) SEE: under instrument.
(kown″tĕr-pŭl-sā′shŏn) [counter- + pulsation] Any of several techniques used to decrease the workload of a failing heart and increase blood flow to the coronary arteries.
enhanced external c. ABBR: EECP. A noninvasive treatment for angina pectoris and congestive heart failure involving the use of inflatable cuffs on the patient’s legs to improve myocardial perfusion and increase cardiac output. Cuffs placed on the calves, lower thighs, and upper thighs are inflated sequentially during diastole when coronary artery filling occurs. The inflated cuffs increase diastolic central aortic pressure, increase blood flow to the coronary arteries, and may enhance collateral blood flow. EECP is used to treat angina pectoris that does not respond to maximal medical therapy.
intra-aortic balloon c. ABBR: IABC. The use of a balloon attached to a catheter inserted through the femoral artery into the proximal descending thoracic aorta to produce alternating inflation and deflation during diastole and systole, respectively. The balloon is inflated with helium. IABC lowers resistance to aortic blood flow during systole and increases resistance during diastole. It is used to treat patients with cardiogenic shock and those awaiting cardiac transplant, recovering from myocardial infarction, being weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass, and, rarely, those with unstable angina or intractable ventricular arrhythmias. It is contradicted in aortic valve insufficiency and dissecting aortic aneurysms. SYN: intra-aortic balloon pump.
PATIENT CARE: Patient preparation: If time permits, the health care provider explains to the patient that the cardiologist will place a special catheter into the aorta, usually via a femoral artery to help the heart pump more easily and to provide specific procedural and sensation information. The nurse explains that the catheter will be connected to a large console beside the bed that has an alarm system and that he or she will promptly answer any alarms. The nurse further explains that the console normally makes a pumping sound and assures the patient that this does not mean that the heart is not beating. The nurse also makes clear that because of the catheter, the patient will not be able to sit up, bend the knee, or flex the hip more than 30°. The patient will remain on the cardiac monitor and have a central line (pulmonary artery catheter), arterial line, and peripheral intravenous (IV) line in place. A thorough assessment of circulation of lower extremity pulses is conducted. Most insertions are performed under fluoroscopy. If the procedure is to be performed at the bedside, the nurse gathers the appropriate equipment, including a surgical tray for percutaneous catheter insertion, heparin solution, ...