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(kī′rō-spăzm) [″ + spasmos, spasm] A spasm of the hand muscles; writer’s cramp. SYN: cheirospasm.

Chirurgiae Magister

ABBR: ChM. Master of Surgery. A degree offered to a student who makes a significant contribution to the theory or practice of surgery.


(chiz′ĕl) A steel cutting instrument with a beveled edge used in dentistry and orthopedics.


(kī′skwār″) SYMB: χ2. A statistical test to determine the correlation between the number of actual occurrences and the expected occurrences.


(kīt′ĭn) [L. chiton, mollusk fr Gr. chiton, tunic] A polysaccharide that forms the hard exoskeleton of arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. It is also present in the cell walls of some fungi. chitinous (kīt′ĭn-ŭs), adj.


(kīt′ŏ-san) A polysaccharide made of glucosamine, naturally present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. It resists digestion in the stomach but degrades in the colon. It is used to protect drugs and oral vaccines for controlled release into the gastrointestinal tract.


(klă-mid′ē-ă) [Gr. chlamys, stem chlamyd-, cloak + -ia] A bacterial genus of intracellular parasites of the family Chlamydiaceae with several recognized species, of which only one, Chlamydia trachomatis, infects humans. The organisms are characterized as bacteria because of the composition of their cell walls and their reproduction by binary fission, but they reproduce only within cells. These species cause a variety of diseases. chlamydial (klă-mid′ē-ăl), adj. SEE: Chlamydophila.

C. trachomatis A species that causes a great number of diseases, including genital infections in men and women. The diseases caused by C. trachomatis include conjunctivitis, epididymitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, pelvic inflammatory disease, pneumonia, trachoma, tubal scarring, and infertility.

 INCIDENCE: C. trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted pathogen (causing more than a million infections in the U.S. annually). Infections are esp. common in sexually active young adults, between 18 and 26.

 SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Men with chlamydial infection experience penile discharge and discomfort while urinating. Women may experience urethral or vaginal discharge, painful or frequent urination, lower abdominal pain, or they may not initially have any symptoms despite contracting pelvic inflammatory disease, which may result in chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancies, or infertility.

 DIAGNOSIS: Several tests for chlamydia are available, including cultures, antigen detection assays, ligase chain reactions, polymerase chain reactions, and enzyme-linked immunoassays.

 PREVENTION: Transmission of the disease can be prevented by avoiding contact with infected people and by using condoms during intercourse. A pregnant woman with a chlamydial infection can transmit the disease to her newborn during birth. In newborns, ophthalmic antibiotic solution should be ...

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