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capsular switching

A change in the polysaccharide capsule that encloses a bacterium, typically as a result of gene transfer between related organisms. It alters the susceptibility of encapsulated bacteria (such as meningococci and pneumococci) to antibiotic therapy.


(kăp″sŭ-lā′shŭn) Enclosure in a capsule.


(kap′sŭl, kap′sool″) [L. capsula, a little box] 1. A sheath or continuous enclosure around an organ or structure; a capsula. 2. A special container made of gelatin, sized for a single dose of a drug. The enclosure prevents the patient from tasting the drug.

articular c. Joint capsule.

auditory c. The embryonic cartilaginous capsule that encloses the developing ear.

bacterial c. The polysaccharide or polypeptide layer that surrounds the cell wall of some bacteria; it provides resistance to phagocytosis. Capsules are antigenic. Their antigens are used to manufacture several common vaccines.

Bowman c. SEE: under Bowman, Sir William.

brood c. A cystlike body that develops within a hydatid cyst of Echinococcus granulosus.

cartilage c. The layer of matrix that forms the innermost portion of the wall of a lacuna enclosing a single cell or a group of cartilage cells. It is basophilic.

Crosby c. SEE: Crosby capsule.

Glisson’s c. SEE: under Glisson, Francis.

glomerular c. SEE: Bowman, Sir William.

internal c. A large bidirectional fiber tract connecting the cerebral cortex with the ipsilateral thalamus and sending axons from the cerebral cortex to the brainstem and spinal cord.

joint c. The sleevelike membrane that encloses the ends of bones in a diarthrodial joint. It consists of an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial layer and contains synovial fluid. SYN: articular c.

c. of the kidney Renal c.

lens c. A transparent, elastic, connective tissue membrane that surrounds and encloses the lens of the eye.

M2A c. A plastic container, measuring about 1 x ½ in, that holds a video camera, batteries, antennas, and flash. It is swallowed and allowed to pass through the intestinal tract, where it is used to obtain images of the small intestine.

PATIENT CARE: The device is typically used to find the cause of gastrointestinal blood loss in patients who have no evidence of bleeding in the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and colon.

nasal c. The cartilaginous capsule that develops in the embryonic skull to enclose the nasal cavity.

optic c. The cartilaginous capsule that develops in the embryonic skull to enclose the eye.

otic c. The cartilaginous capsule that develops in the ...

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