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(ar-threk′tŏ-mē) [arthro- + -ectomy] Surgical excision of a joint.


(ar-thrit′ik) [arthro-) + -itic] 1. Pert. to arthritis. 2. A person afflicted with arthritis. arthritically (ar-thrit′ĭ-k(ă-)lē), adv.


(ar-thrīt′ĭs, ar-thrīt′ĭ-dēz″) pl.


[arthro- + -itis] Inflammation of the joints, often accompanied by pain, swelling, stiffness, and deformity. Arthritis is very common, affecting millions. The most prevalent type, osteoarthritis (degenerative arthritis), increases in incidence with age but is not considered a part of normal aging. Other forms of arthritis include rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis differs from rheumatic disease: arthritis is a disease of joints; rheumatic disease may also affect other tissues and organs. arthritic (ar-thrit′ik), adj.

 CAUSES: Arthritis may result from infections (such as rheumatic fever, staphylococcal infections, gonorrhea, tuberculosis), metabolic disturbances (such as gout, calcium pyrophosphate crystal disease), multisystem autoimmune diseases (such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus), neuropathies (such as Charcot joint), joint trauma, or endocrine diseases (such as acromegaly). SEE: bursitis; monoarthritis; osteoarthritis; polyarthritis; rheumatism.

 TREATMENT: Anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, aspiration of joints, surgery, and occupational or physical therapies are used to treat arthritis, depending on the cause and severity of the illness.

adjuvant a. ABBR: AA. An experimental model of arthritis induced into rodents by injection of foreign substance, such as Freund adjuvant, into the tail vein or paw. This model can be used to study new agents for human arthritis treatment. SEE: Rheumatoid a.

bacterial a. Septic a.

degenerative a. Osteoarthritis.

enteropathic a. Arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

experimental a. Arthritis induced in laboratory animals, used to study pathophysiology or to foster improvements in diagnosing or treating a disease.

gonococcal a. Arthritis, often with tenosynovitis and/or rash, caused by gonococcal infection. The joints of the knees, wrists, and hands are most commonly affected. The disease may affect any sexually active person and may follow infection of a mucous membrane by gonorrhea. This presentation of gonorrhea is usually called disseminated gonococcal infection.

 TREATMENT: It is treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. A tetracycline antibiotic is usually given at the same time to treat possible coinfection with Chlamydia species.

gouty a. Arthritis caused by gout.

hypertrophic a. Osteoarthritis.

juvenile idiopathic a. ABBR: JIA. Juvenile rheumatoid a.

juvenile rheumatoid a. ABBR: JRA. Any of a group of related inflammatory joint diseases of childhood, the most severe of which is also the most common variety.

 INCIDENCE: Between 1 in 100,000 and 200,000 children ...

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