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apple sorter’s disease

Contact dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals in agricultural work, such as fungicides and pesticides.

 DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis is suggested by an itchy rash in appropriate locations on the skin. The diagnosis can be supported by allergen skin tests.

 SYMPTOMS: Itching, reddening, scaling and swelling of the skin, particularly of the arms and hands, and in the flexural creases of the limbs are common presenting complaints.

 TREATMENT: Topical corticosteroids, topical astringents, and oral antihistamines are the primary treatments. Injected steroids are prescribed for some patients.

PATIENT CARE: Avoiding contact with irritant chemicals or allergens is essential to controlling the rash. Agricultural workers should wear gloves, wash work clothes frequently, and become familiar with chemical safety information sheets on the agents they use at work.


(ă-plī′ăns) 1. In dentistry, a device to provide or facilitate a particular function. The functions include dentures (to replace one or more teeth), a mandibular advancement splint (to open the airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea), a mouth guard (to protect the teeth during sports), or a night guard (to protect teeth from clenching and grinding during sleep). SEE: dental prosthesis. 2. A device for influencing a specific function, e.g., a cane, crutch, or walker to assist walking, or an appliance to discourage thumb sucking. SEE: prosthesis.


(ap″lĭ-kā′shŏn) [L. applicare, to apply] A program designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for another program.

application area

1. A clinical setting where tapes, wraps, braces, and pads are applied to injured patients. 2. The part of a patient’s body to which treatment is given.

application of heat

Placing an object, warmed above body temperature, on a body part to increase blood flow or provide relief of pain.

image Do not apply heat to extremities with reduced blood supply, which is often the case in most forms of arteriosclerosis or advanced diabetes. Do not use electric heating devices next to moist dressings.

 Dry or moist heat sources may be used. Dry applications include hot water bottles, radiant heat, electric pads, and microwavable fabric heat pads filled with uncooked rice, wheat, feed corn, buckwheat hulls, barley, beans, flax seed, or other similar dry materials. Moist heat is considered more penetrating than dry heat because water-soaked materials lose heat slower than dry ones. The application should be at approx. 120°F (48.9°C). Compresses may be kept warm by keeping hot water bottles at the proper temperature next to them. Devices that force hot water at a selected temperature through soft flexible tubing surrounding a part are available. These may be ...

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