(an″jē-og′ră-fē) [angio- + -graphy] 1. A description of blood vessels and lymphatics. 2. Diagnostic or therapeutic radiography of the heart and blood vessels with a radiopaque contrast medium. Types include magnetic resonance angiography, interventional radiology, and computed tomography.
PATIENT CARE: Before the procedure: health care professionals explain to the patient how a needle or catheter will be used to penetrate a blood vessel, and that a contrast agent will be injected into it to highlight or map the course of the vessel and any abnormalities in it or associated with it. These abnormalities may include widenings and weaknesses in the blood vessels (aneurysms); narrowings of the vessel (stenoses or obstructions); abnormal connections between arteries and veins (fistulae); or unusual networks of vessels (arteriovenous malformations or in some cases, the complex blood supply of malignant tumors). Complications of angiography include damage to the blood vessel or neighboring tissues, bleeding or bruising, cardiac arrhythmias, syncope, infection, or, in very rare instances, death. These potential complications should be fully reviewed with the patient during the informed consent that precedes the procedure.
During the procedure: the patient’s heart rate and rhythm are closely monitored, along with his or her blood pressure, oxygenation, mental status, and in critically ill patients, urinary output. During the injection of contrast material, the patient may experience a hot flush, palpitations, or other unusual sensations. These sensations should be explained to the patient before they occur to minimize anxiety. Anxiolytics or sedatives may sometimes be administered to patients as needed.
After the procedure: the puncture site is tamponaded and bandaged and then monitored for signs of bleeding or bruising. The part of the body distal to the puncture site is periodically assessed for pulse, color, warmth, sensation, and movement. The patient is permitted to be ambulatory only after the puncture site is stabilized and institutional protocols are completed.
3. Recording of arterial pulse movements with a sphygmograph. angiographic (an″jē-ŏ-graf′ik), adj. angiographically, adv.
aortic a. Angiography of the aorta and its branches.
cardiac a. Angiography of the heart and coronary arteries.
cardiac computed tomographic a. Angiography for the determination of visible blockages in the coronary arteries with noninvasive CT scanning instead of coronary catheterization.
catheter a. Angiography performed after a small tube is placed in a blood vessel and a contrast medium is injected to outline the internal structure of the blood vessel.
cerebral a. Angiography of the vascular system of the brain.
coronary a. Angiography of the coronary arteries to determine any pathological obstructions to blood flow to the heart muscle. It is used to provide definitive images of the coronary arteries that reveal atherosclerotic blockage to blood flow so that those blockages can be surgically ...