(an″ă-lep′tik) [Gr. analeptikos, restorative] 1. A drug that stimulates the central nervous system. 2. A restorative agent.
(an″ăl-jē′zh(ē-)ă) [Gr. analgēsia, painlessness] 1. Absence of a normal sense of pain. 2. The relief of pain, as with medications such as anesthetic drugs. 3. The administration of a pain reliever.
audio a. SEE: audioanalgesia.
electronic dental a. ABBR: EDA. The treatment of oral pain or the administration of oral anesthesia with electrode pads applied to the cheeks or the oral mucosa. SEE: audioanalgesia.
epidural a. A technique of managing pain in which narcotics are infused into the peridural space through an indwelling catheter. Administration may be at a continuous basal infusion rate or self-administered within programmed limits.
USES: Epidurally administered medications diffuse across the dura mater through the arachnoid and pia mater to provide pain relief and are indicated to treat pain in the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral areas (as in patients in labor or those undergoing thoracic surgeries) and to relieve the acute and chronic pain of chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy, cancer pain, phantom limb pain, pancreatic pain, and incisional pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for surgeries such as cholecystectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, hysterectomy, arthroplasty, or even abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Epidural needles and catheters can be inserted at spinal levels C7 to T1 to treat patients with chronic pain or for surgeries of the arms and shoulders; from T4 to T5 for thoracic surgery; from T8 to T10 for upper abdominal surgery; and at L2 to L3 for lower abdominal surgery and for labor and delivery. Drugs for epidural anesthesia include anesthetics such as lidocaine, analgesics such as morphine, or steroids such as methylprednisolone acetate. Epidural anesthesia is contraindicated in patients receiving systemic anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, e.g., aspirin products or NSAIDs, patients with abnormal or reduced concentrations of clotting factors, patients in hypovolemic shock, with abruptio placentae, and whenever there is evidence of active infection near the site of the insertion of the epidural catheter. Contraindications include history of headaches or backaches, chronic neurological disorders, and allergy to drugs being used.
PATIENT CARE: The anesthesia provider discusses the procedure, benefits, and risks with the patient and answers any questions. An informed consent form must be signed by the patient. The nurse may reinforce or clarify information as necessary and witness the patient’s signature on the consent form. Before the procedure the patient should have an IV line infusing lactated Ringer solution or 0.9% sodium chloride solution and should have supplemental oxygen via a nasal cannula or simple face mask. Blood pressure and oxygen saturation should be monitored throughout the procedure. The health care professional helps position the patient in the preferred ...