(am″ŏ-nī′ă-kăl) Pert. to or having the characteristics of ammonia.
(ă-mō′nē-āt″ĕd) Containing ammonia.
(ă-mō″nē-ē′mē-ă, ă-mō-nē′mē-ă) [ammonia + -emia] Excessive ammonia in the blood. Normally, only faint traces of ammonia are found in the blood. Increased amounts are due to a pathological condition such as impaired liver function.
(am-nē′zhă) [Gr. amnēsia, amnēstia, oblivion, forgetfulness] Loss of memory, whether partial, total, permanent, or transient. The term is often applied to episodes during which patients forget recent events although they may conduct themselves appropriately, and after which no memory of the period persists. Such episodes are often caused by strokes, seizures, trauma, senility, alcoholism, or intoxication. The cause is often unknown.
anterograde a. Amnesia for events that occurred after a precipitating event or medication.
Short-term memory loss may be induced in people who use benzodiazepine drugs (such as triazolam, lorazepam, or flurazepam).
SYN: anterograde memory; anterograde memory loss.
dissociative a. Amnesia for important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature, that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. SYN: psychogenic amnesia.
post-traumatic a. ABBR: PTA. Amnesia, agitation, and confusion affecting a patient with traumatic brain injury (TBI) soon after the injury or on awakening from coma. Edema, hemorrhage, contusions, shearing of axons, and metabolic disturbances impair the ability of the brain to process information accurately, resulting in unusual behaviors that are often difficult to manage. Trauma patients with normal brain scans may have mild TBI and display some of the symptoms of PTA. Posttraumatic amnesia can last for months but usually resolves within a few weeks. During PTA, the patient moves from a cognitive level of internal confusion to a level of confusion about the environment. SEE: Rancho Los Amigos Guide to Cognitive Levels.
SYMPTOMS: Symptoms include restlessness, moaning or crying out, uninhibited behavior (often sexual or angry), hallucinations (often paranoid), lack of continuous memory, confabulation, combative behavior, confused language, disorientation, perseveration, and sleep disturbances. Problem-solving ability, reasoning, and carrying out planned motor movements (as in activities of daily living) may also be impaired.
PATIENT CARE: The patient is continually reoriented by a large calendar and clock within sight; each interaction with the patient begins with a repetition of who is in attendance, why the attendant is present, and what activity is planned; and the patient is kept safe and comfortable and is allowed as much freedom of movement as possible.
As the patient becomes confused, he or she may show agitation. Health care professionals can limit agitation and confusion by speaking softly in simple phrases, using gestures as necessary, and allowing time for the ...