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Chapter 16. Nutrition for Athletes With Special Dietary Needs

Poorly planned vegetarian diets have a tendency to be low in which of the following nutrients?

A. Omega-6 fatty acids

B. Vitamin C

C. Beta-carotene

D. Vitamin B12

Holly is an endurance runner who trains 4 to 5 days per week and typically competes in three marathons a year. She is also a vegan. What percentage of her total daily calories should come from carbohydrates?

A. 40% to 50%

B. 50% to 60%

C. 60% to 70%

D. 70% to 80%

Tom is a 200-pound (91-kg) bodybuilder who eats a pesco-vegetarian diet. He also supplements his daily meal plan with a smoothie that contains protein powder. According to established guidelines, what is the maximum amount of protein that Tom should eat per day?

A. 171 grams

B. 155 grams

C. 144 grams

D. 128 grams

Which of the following recommendations is an appropriate strategy for a vegetarian athlete who wants to increase his or her caloric intake?

A. Add dried fruit, seeds, nuts, and avocados to meals and snacks

B. Eat larger meals and fewer snacks

C. Avoid meat alternatives

D. Introduce high-calorie beverages

Which of the following statements about vegetarians is true?

A. Vegetarians must consume adequate amounts of complementary plant proteins within the same meal to meet their protein needs.

B. Iron-deficiency anemia affects approximately 30% of vegetarian endurance athletes.

C. Vegetarian athletes should consider creatine supplementation, if peak performance is essential.

D. Vegetarians can enhance iron absorption by consuming a food that is high in vitamin A.

Which of the following nutrients would most likely be deficient in a poorly planned gluten-free eating plan?

A. B vitamins

B. Potassium

C. Vitamin E

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