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After studying this chapter, the reader should be able to:

  • 5.1 Summarize the major recommendations from the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  • 5.2 Describe the major features of MyPlate.

  • 5.3 Define the dietary reference intakes, including RDA, EAR, UL, and AI.

  • 5.4 Dissect a nutrition label to determine the total number of calories; calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates; and overall nutritional value of a product.

  • 5.5 List several important food safety principles when selecting, storing, and preparing food.

  • 5.6 Describe four ways that allied health professionals can get involved to shape policy and advocate for healthier lifestyles.


  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) An agency of the federal government whose mission is to work with other health agencies to optimally promote health, prevent disease, reduce injury and disability, and prepare for and respond to health threats.

  • daily value (DV) The recommended level of intake for a nutrient.

  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans Federally released guidelines that provide evidence-based nutrition information and advice for people age 2 and older and serve as the basis for federal food and nutrition education programs.

  • Federal Trade Commission The government agency tasked with the job of preventing unfair methods of competition and enforcement of “unfair and deceptive acts or practices,” such as misleading advertisements.

  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) An agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that, among other functions, monitors food and drug safety, oversees nutrition labeling, regulates tobacco products, and provides the public with credible health information.

  • food frequency questionnaire A method used to identify typical eating habits, which is composed of a checklist of foods and beverages with a section for the client to mark how often each of the listed foods are eaten.

  • percent daily value The percentage of recommendations for key nutrients based on a 2,000-calorie diet.

  • qualified health claims A health claim on a packaged food that is supported by scientific research that attests a relationship between a substance and its ability to reduce the risk of a disease or health-related condition.

  • recommended dietary allowance (RDA) The amount of nutrient known to be adequate to meet the nutritional needs of nearly all healthy persons.

  • social-ecological model A model for health behavior change that emphasizes the development of coordinated partnerships, programs, and policies to support healthy eating and active living.

  • structure-function claims A health claim on a packaged food that describes the effect that a substance has on the structure or function of the body. An example is “calcium builds strong bones.” Structure-function claims must be truthful and not misleading and are not pre-reviewed or authorized by the FDA.

  • tolerable upper intake level The maximum intake that is unlikely to pose risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in an age- and gender-specific group.

  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) An agency of the federal government responsible for developing and implementing policy on food and dietary recommendations, farming, and agriculture.


  • Carbohydrate ...

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