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Anatomy Overview

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MUSCLE ACTIONS OF THE ANKLE AND FOOT
TABLE KEY:    Primary muscle    Secondary muscles
Sagittal   Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion
  Talocrural joint

Tibialis anterior

Extensor digitorum longus

Extensor hallucis longus

Fibularis tertius

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

Plantaris

Tibialis posterior

Flexor hallucis longus

Flexor digitorum longus

Fibularis longus

Fibularis brevis

  Flexion Extension
Metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint

Lumbricals

Flexor hallucis brevis

Interossei

Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Flexor digitorum longus (digits 2–5)

Flexor digitorum brevis (digits 2–5)

Flexor hallucis longus (digit 1)

Extensor digitorum longus (digits 2–5)

Extensor digitorum brevis

Extensor hallucis longus (digit 1)

Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint

Flexor digitorum longus (digits 2–5)

Flexor digitorum brevis (digits 2–5)

Flexor hallucis longus (digit 1)

Extensor digitorum longus (digits 2–5)

Extensor digitorum brevis

Extensor hallucis longus (digit 1)

Distal Interphalangeal (DIP) Joint Flexor digitorum longus (digits 2–5)

Extensor digitorum longus (digits 2–5)

Extensor digitorum brevis

Frontal   Inversion Eversion
   

Tibialis anterior

Tibialis posterior

Flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallucis longus

Fibularis longus

Fibularis brevis

Fibularis tertius

Extensor digitorum longus

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FOOT AND ANKLE MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS
Muscles Proximal Attachment Distal Attachment
Tibalis anterior Lateral condyle and superior 2/3 of anterolateral surface of tibia and interosseous membrane Medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal
Extensor digitorum longus Lateral condyle of tibia and superior 3/4 of medial surface of fibula and interosseous membrane Middle and distal phalanges of digits 2–5
Extensor hallucis longus Middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of digit 1 (hallux)
Fibularis longus Head and superior 2/3 of lateral surface of tibia Base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
Fibularis brevis Inferior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula Dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of base of 5th metatarsal
Fibularis tertius Inferior 1/3 of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane Dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal
Gastrocnemius

Lateral head: lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur

Medial head: Popliteal surface of femur; superior to medial femoral condyle

Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Soleus Posterior aspect of head and superior 1/4 of posterior surface of fibula; middle third of medial border of tibia Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Plantaris Inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur; oblique popliteal ligament Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Flexor hallucis longus Inferior 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane Base of distal phalanx of digit 1 (hallux)
Flexor digitorum longus Medial part of posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line Base of distal phalanges of digits 2–5
Tibialis posterior Interosseous membrane; posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line; posterior surface of fibula Tuberosity of navicular, cuneiform, cuboid, and sustentaculum tali of calcaneus; bases of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals
Lumbricals Tendons of flexor digitorum longus Medial aspect of expansion (digits 2–5)
Flexor hallucis ...

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