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Anatomy Overview

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MUSCLE ACTIONS OF THE HIP (FEMOROACETABULAR JOINT)
Muscle actions are considered with the hip beginning from anatomical position. Muscle actions can change if activated from a different position.
TABLE KEY: Primary muscle Secondary muscles Dependent on hip position
Sagittal Plane Flexion Extension
 

Iliopsoas

Rectus femoris

Tensor fascia latae

Sartorius

Pectineus

Adductor longus

Adductor magnus

Gracilis

Gluteus minimus (anterior fibers)

Gluteus maximus

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Biceps femoris, long head

Gluteus medius (posterior fibers)

Adductor magnus (posterior fibers)

Piriformis

Frontal Plane Abduction Adduction
 

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Tensor fascia latae

Piriformis

Sartorius

Rectus femoris

Adductor magnus

Pectineus

Adductor longus

Adductor brevis

Gracilis

Obturator externus

Transverse Plane Medial rotation Lateral rotation
 

Tensor fascia latae

Gluteus minimus

Gluteus medius (anterior fibers)

Pectineus

Adductor longus and brevis

Adductor magnus (posterior fibers)

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

Gluteus maximus

Piriformis

Quadratus femoris

Obturator internus and externus

Gemellus superior and inferior

Sartorius

Gluteus medius (posterior fibers)

Biceps femoris, long head

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Muscle Proximal Attachment Distal Attachment
Iliopsoas

Psoas major and minor: transverse processes and lateral aspect of T12–L5 vertebral bodies and discs

Iliacus: Iliac crest, iliac fossa, sacral ala and anterior SI ligaments

Lesser trochanter
Rectus femoris AIIS Quadriceps tendon to patella and ultimately tibial tuberosity
Tensor fascia latae ASIS Iliotibial (IT) band to lateral condyle of tibia
Sartorius ASIS Superior aspect of medial tibia
Pectineus Superior ramus of pubis Pectineal line (femur), just inferior to lesser trochanter
Adductor longus Body of pubis, inferior to pubic crest Middle third of linea aspera (femur)
Adductor brevis Body and inferior ramus of pubis Pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera (femur)
Adductor magnus Inferior ramus of pubis to ischial tuberosity Gluteal tuberosity to adductor tubercle of femur via linea aspera (femur)
Gracilis Body and inferior ramus of pubis Superior aspect of medial tibia
Gluteus maximus Posterior ilium, sacrum and coccyx Iliotibial (IT) band to lateral condyle of tibia
Gluteus medius Lateral surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines Greater trochanter (femur)
Gluteus minimus Lateral surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines Greater trochanter (femur)
Semimembranosus Ischial tuberosity Posterior aspect of medial tibial condyle
Semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity Superior aspect of medial tibia
Biceps femoris, long head Ischial tuberosity Lateral aspect of fibular head
Piriformis Anterior surface of sacrum Greater trochanter (femur)
Obturator externus Edge of obturator foramen Trochanteric fossa (femur)
Obturator internus Pelvic edge of obturator foramen Greater trochanter to trochanteric fossa (femur)
Gemellus superior and inferior

Superior: ischial spine

Inferior: ischial tuberosity

Greater trochanter to trochanteric fossa (femur)
Quadratus femoris Ischial tuberosity Inter-trochanteric crest (femur)

Introduction

The hip joint, also called the coxofemoral or femoroacetabular joint, is the articulation of the acetabulum of the pelvis and the head of the femur (Fig. 10–1). These two segments form a diarthrodial ball-and-socket joint with three degrees of freedom: ...

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