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Anatomy Overview

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MUSCLE ACTIONS OF THE GLENOHUMERAL JOINT
TABLE KEY:    Primary movers    Secondary movers
Sagittal Plane Flexion Extension
 

Deltoid (anterior)

Pectoralis major (clavicular head)

Biceps brachii

Coracobrachialis

Deltoid (posterior)

Latissimus dorsi

Triceps brachii (long head)

Pectoralis major (sternal head)

Teres major

Frontal Plane Abduction Adduction
 

Supraspinatus

Deltoid (middle)

Pectoralis major

Latissimus dorsi

Teres major

Coracobrachialis

Transverse Plane Medial rotation Lateral rotation
 

Pectoralis major

Subscapularis

Teres major

Latissimus dorsi

Deltoid (anterior)

Infraspinatus

Teres minor

Deltoid (posterior)

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MUSCLE ACTIONS OF THE SCAPULOTHORACIC JOINT
TABLE KEY:    Primary movers    Secondary movers
Protraction Retraction

Serratus anterior

Pectoralis major

Pectoralis minor

Middle trapezius

Rhomboids

Elevation Depression

Upper trapezius

Levator scapulae

Rhomboids

Lower trapezius

Latissimus dorsi

Pectoralis minor

Upward rotation Downward rotation

Serratus anterior

Upper trapezius

Lower trapezius

Rhomboids

Latissimus dorsi

Levator scapulae

Pectoralis minor

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SHOULDER MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS
Muscles Proximal Attachment Distal Attachment
Pectoralis major

Clavicular head: anterior surface of medial half of clavicle

Sternocostal head: anterior surface of sternum, superior six costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique muscle

Lateral lip of intertubercular (bicipital) groove and crest of greater tubercle of humerus
Pectoralis minor 3rd–5th ribs near their costal cartilages Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula
Serratus anterior External surfaces of lateral parts of 1st–8th ribs Anterior surface of medial border of scapula
Trapezius Medial third of superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7–T12 vertebrae Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula.
Latissimus dorsi Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs Floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Levator scapulae Transverse processes of C1–C4 vertebrae Superior aspect of medial border of the scapula
Rhomboid minor Nuchal ligament; spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae Smooth triangular area at medial end of scapular spine
Rhomboid major Spinous processes of T2–T5 vertebrae Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle
Deltoid Lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion and spine of scapula Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa of scapula Superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Infraspinatus Infraspinous fossa of scapula Middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Teres minor Middle aspect of lateral border of scapula Inferior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Teres major Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula Medial lip of intertubercular (bicipital) groove of humerus
Subscapularis Subscapular fossa (most of anterior surface of scapula) Lesser tubercle of humerus
Biceps brachii Short head: tip of coracoid process of scapula Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula Tuberosity of radius
Coracobrachialis Tip of coracoid process of scapula Middle third of medial surface of humerus
Triceps brachii Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Proximal end of olecranon of ulna

Introduction

The shoulder ...

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