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Anatomy of the Ankle & Foot

Dorsal View

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Lateral View

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Medial View

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Physiologic (Osteokinematic) Motions of the Ankle & Foot

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Joint Normal ROM OPP CPP Normal End Feel(s) Capsular Pattern
Talocrural

Dorsiflex = 20° Plantarflex = 30°–50°

Inv = 10°–30°

Ev = 10°–20°

10° PF Max DF Elastic (tissue stretch) for all planes Plantarflex > dorsiflex
Subtalar

Inv/add = 5°–12°

Ev/abd = 20°–30°

Full pronation

Full

supination

Elastic (tissue stretch) for all planes Inv > ev
Midtarsal

Inv/ev = 10°

Abd/dorsiflex = 10°

Add/plantarflex = 20°

Abd Add Elastic (tissue stretch) for all planes  
TMT

Dorsiflex = 10°

Plantarflex = 10°

Pronation Supination Capsular  
1st MTP

Flex = 75°

Ext = 35°

5°–10°

ext

Maximal ext Capsular

Ext > flex

2–5 MTP

Flex = 75°

Ext = 35°

Slight flex Maximal ext

Flex/ext = capsular, elastic

Abd/add = ligamentous

Ext > flex

IP

Flex = 110°

Ext = 25°

Slight flex Maximal ext

Flex/ext = capsular, elastic

Abd/add = ligamentous

 

Accessory (Arthrokinematic) Motions of the Ankle & Foot

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Arthrology Arthrokinematics
Talocrural joint Concave surface: Distal tibia/fibula Convex surface: Talus

To facilitate ankle dorsiflex:

OKC: talus rolls anterior & glides posterior on tibia

CKC: tibia rolls & glides anterior

To facilitate ankle plantarflex:

OKC: talus rolls posterior & glides anterior on tibia

CKC: tibia rolls & glides posterior

Subtalar joint

Concave surface:

Anterior calcaneal facet & posterior talus

Convex surface:

Posterior calcaneal facet & anterior talus

To facilitate inv:

OKC: anterior calcaneal facet rolls & glides medial while posterior calcaneal facet rolls & glides lateral

CKC: talus rolls medial & glides lateral on anterior calcaneal facet while talus rolls & glides medial on posterior calcaneal facet

To facilitate eversion:

OKC: anterior calcaneal facet rolls & glides lateral while posterior calcaneal facet rolls & glides medial

CKC: talus rolls lateral & glides medial on anterior calcaneal facet while talus rolls & glides lateral on posterior calcaneal facet

MTP joint

Concave surface: Phalanx

Convex surface: Metatarsal

To facilitate flex:

Phalanx rolls & glides plantar on metatarsal

To facilitate ext:

Phalanx rolls & glides dorsal on metatarsal

IP joint

Concave surface: Distal phalanx

Convex surface: Proximal phalanx

To facilitate flex:

Distal phalanx rolls & glides plantar on proximal phalanx

To facilitate ext:

Distal phalanx rolls & glides dorsal on proximal phalanx

Ankle & Foot Mobilization Techniques

Distal Tibiofibular Glide

Indications:

  • To improve all motions of the talocrural joint

Patient:

  • Supine with foot supported on table in neutral position

  • Posterior glide in supine, anterior glide in prone

Clinician:

  • Standing ...

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