Many terms provided here, although having broader meanings outside patient mobility skills, are defined within the context of the material in this book.
Acceleration Traditional terminology for the phase of gait that occurs from toe off until the swing leg is directly under the body, during which the leg is increasing in speed over time.
Accessory motion “Joint play” within the joint that becomes evident with the application of overpressure at the end of a joint’s PROM.
Active assisted range of motion (AAROM) Movement of a joint created both internally and by some external assistance.
Active range of motion (AROM) Movement of a joint created by internal force.
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) Civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against people in all areas of public life; aspects of the ADA mandating accessibility are operationalized in the ADA Accessibility Guidelines.
Ageism Stereotyping of and discriminating against people, especially older adults, solely based on their age.
Agonist muscle Muscle whose contraction provides the primary force to create or control a movement.
Air-assisted device A lateral transfer mattress in which air is forced out many small holes in the bottom of the mattress, creating a thin layer of air that reduces friction between the two transfer surfaces.
Airborne Precautions Guidelines recommended, in addition to Standard Precautions, for reducing the risk of airborne transmission of infectious agents.
Airborne transmission Infection transmission that occurs by dissemination of small residue particles (5 µm or smaller in size) containing infectious agents that are then inhaled or deposited on a susceptible host.
Ambulation A term commonly used in rehabilitation to denote walking with or without an assistive device and with or without physical assistance from another person.
Amplitude Characteristic of the arterial pulse that reflects the volume of blood within the vessel and the pressure being placed on the vessel’s walls.
Angular fall Type of fall that occurs when dynamic stability is lost and the patient falls forward or backward.
Antagonist muscle Muscle whose passive lengthening or active contraction opposes contraction of the agonist but to a lesser degree; agonist and antagonist may work together to generate controlled movements.
Anteroposterior Long-sitting transfers, also known as front-to-back or straight-on transfers, that allow a patient to move forward or back between two surfaces.
Arm swing The forward-and-back movement of the arms during ambulation with forward arm movement typically occurring simultaneously with contralateral lower-limb advancement.
Arthrokinematics The subtle internal motions of rolling, gliding, and spinning that take place inside the joint, making osteokinematic movement possible.
AMAP/ANAP Guiding principle of Mobility in Context—as much as possible, as normally as possible—encouraging patients’ functional independence.