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  1. Identify common tissue injuries associated with physical activity.

  2. Explain the healing process of the body, including factors that affect how different tissues heal (e.g., muscles, ligaments, and bones).

  3. Explain the difference between preexisting and acute injuries, and explain how to apply the P.R.I.C.E. method of treatment.

  4. Explain the importance of flexibility and musculoskeletal injuries.

  5. Describe common musculoskeletal injuries of the upper and lower extremities, and describe common treatments for each injury.

  6. Describe the basic tenets of reconditioning common injuries to allow clients to return to activity safely.

  7. Explain the importance of adhering to the scope of practice and accurate record-keeping.


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  • Rafael, a nationally ranked junior tennis player in the boys' 18 division, arrives at Marco's personal training studio with hopes of improving his overall fitness level and enhancing his game through sport-specific training, which is Marco's specialty. Specifically, Rafael is hoping to add speed to his serve, which he perceives as the greatest weakness in his game. Rafael mentions to Marco that he sometimes feels pain along the outside of his elbow after a long match or training session.

    What training techniques can Marco implement to strengthen Rafael's serve, and what might be the cause of Rafael's elbow pain? What actions can Marco take to address this pain while staying within his scope of practice as a personal trainer?

  • Marco suspects that Rafael is suffering from lateral epicondylitis, which is commonly referred to as "tennis elbow." This overuse injury often results from poor mechanics during a backhand swing. Marco tells Rafael that he should avoid activities that aggravate the pain and ice his elbow if the pain flairs up. Marco also recommends that Rafael seek the help of Eleanor, the athletic trainer at the tennis academy, because treating this condition is outside of Marco's scope of practice. The athletic trainer will likely prescribe a wrist or elbow splint and provide guidelines for modifying Rafael's workouts. Rafael is clearly distressed by Marco's feedback regarding his elbow injury, but Marco reminds him that this type of injury will only get worse over time if not addressed properly.


The number of people in the United States who are participating in some sort of physical activity or playing sports is extremely high. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that more than 38 million boys and girls aged 5 to 18 years participate in youth sports,1 and approximately 150 million adults participate in some form of physical activity.2 With so many youths and adults participating in sports and physical activity, the needs for injury recognition, management, and prevention have grown. This chapter describes musculoskeletal ...

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