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  1. Describe environmental conditions at altitude, including percent air composition, solar radiation, changes in air temperature at various altitudes, wind speeds, and terrain effects on human effort.

  2. Identify body/physiological changes related to acute altitude exposure.

  3. Identify body/physiological changes related to chronic altitude exposure (acclimation).

  4. Describe common changes in sea-level performance after altitude exposure or training.

  5. Compare and contrast exercise performance at altitude with little to no acclimation with that after proper acclimation.

  6. Identify the key elements of successful altitude training camps.

  7. Describe changes in a person's general fitness level (positive and negative) and blood chemistry after a long sojourn to high altitude.

  8. Identify notable health decrements/hazards that may occur with acute altitude exposure, such as acute mountain sickness.

  9. Explain how exercise at altitude (vs. sea level) may aid in weight loss for overweight and obese individuals.

  10. Describe the cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution.

  11. Identify exercise performance inhibitors brought on by air pollution.

  12. Explain why the risk for cardiovascular disease may increase with acute or chronic exposure to pollutants.

  13. Briefly describe the history of diving.

  14. Explain the physics of diving, specifically the concept of hydrostatic pressure, Boyle's law, and Henry's law.

  15. Describe the major physiological responses during diving, including the diving reflex, ventilatory responses, hemodynamic responses, and the energy cost of diving.

  16. Identify common diving equipment.

  17. List possible complications during scuba diving.


Visit DavisPlus at for study and practice resources, including online quizzes, animations that help explain physiological processes, podcasts concerning news and career trends in exercise physiology, and practice references.



  • Scott Jurek, a world-renowned ultra-running champion, had done it all. His seven consecutive Western States 100-Mile Endurance Run wins was unprecedented, especially because he did it all before his 30th birthday. Winning Western States was like winning the Super Bowl of 100-mile ultra-runs. Winning once makes a person a legend.

    However, despite his overwhelming persona as a fierce competitor, Jurek lived at sea level in Seattle, Washington, and consequently tended to struggle during ultra-races at high altitudes because he lacked an acclimation strategy. He then decided to tackle the hardest and highest-altitude 100-mile run, the Hardrock 100 Endurance Run, which has an average running elevation of nearly 11,000 ft and about 33,000 ft of ascent.

    How would a well-planned acclimation strategy improve Jurek's results in this high-altitude event?

  • As Scott Jurek prepared for the Hardrock 100 Endurance Run through the high elevations of the Rocky Mountains, he lived at elevation (i.e., Silverton, Colorado, the start and finish of the loop course) and ran on the course daily. While he trained and lived in the upper reaches of the Rockies, he experimented with different layers of clothing. He also became aware of the harsh and unpredictable nature of the sun, air temperature, wind, and terrain-yet another "real-life" advantage over competitors who were arriving directly from sea level just days before the ...

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