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  1. List the major goals of pre-exercise, during-exercise, and post-exercise nutritional strategies.

  2. Describe several strategies to optimize preexercise, during-exercise, and post-exercise nutrition.

  3. List ways in which hydration status affects athletic performance.

  4. Apply the current, research-based hydration recommendations for before, during, and after exercise.

  5. Calculate sweat rate using the protocol provided by the USA Track & Field Association.

  6. Explain how to identify and respond to a client with an eating disorder.

  7. Explain how gluten sensitivity and a vegetarian diet can affect athletic performance.

  8. List three ways in which sports nutrition for children is different than for adults.


Visit DavisPlus at for study and practice resources, including online quizzes, animations that help explain physiological processes, podcasts concerning news and career trends in exercise physiology, and practice references.



  • Layla is a 23-year-old recreational athlete who stands 5′9″ (1.75 m) and weighs 135 pounds (61.4 kg). She is intensifying her training in hopes of qualifying for the Boston Marathon. Layla has finished three marathons, but despite her best efforts, she has yet to run the 26.2 miles in the qualifying time of 3 hours 40 minutes (her personal record is 4 hours). During her prior training, she focused exclusively on physical training and made no changes to her diet or eating habits. She is convinced that if she optimizes her nutrition, she will easily be able to shave the needed 20 minutes off of her run time, so she enlists the help of Enrique, a Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics.

    How might the application of basic sports nutrition principles help Layla run faster and give her the energy she needs to train for peak performance?

  • Layla entered her age, sex, height (5′9″), weight (135 pounds), and physical activity level (greater than 60 min/day) into the ChooseMyPlate ( food tracker (Supertracker), which calculated her total daily energy expenditure at approximately 2,400 calories/day. She asks Enrique to help her optimize her nutritional intake while staying at or below this threshold.

  • The following table presents Layla's planned workout program for the next week:

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    5-mile recovery jog 6 × 400-meter sprints, weight lifting 6-mile jog 6 × 400-meter sprints, weight lifting Marathon pace 10-mile run Rest 20-mile run (long, slow distance)

    Layla and Enrique are preparing a pre-, during, and post-exercise fueling plan for her 20-mile run on Sunday. Because Layla plans to wake up early to begin the run, she will have little opportunity for pre-fueling before the workout. To address this, she plans to consume a high-carbohydrate dinner and ample fluids on Saturday evening. During the Sunday run, Layla will carry some sports gels, gummies, and jelly beans in her fuel belt to supply about 11 g carbohydrate every 15 minutes. On Enrique's recommendation, within 30 minutes of finishing the ...

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