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  1. Describe the roles of the cardiovascular system.

  2. Identify the structures of the systemic and pulmonary circuits.

  3. Describe the anatomical structures of the heart pump and the cardiac wall.

  4. Explain the function of the myocardium and its metabolic demands.

  5. Describe the components of blood and their functions.

  6. Identify the anatomical features and function of the electrical conduction system and coronary system.

  7. Describe the function and features of the normal electrocardiogram.

  8. Explain the mechanical events of the cardiac cycle.

  9. List the factors that regulate stroke volume at rest and during exercise.

  10. Differentiate and calculate various hemodynamic variables (mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, rate pressure product, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, ejection fraction) at rest and during exercise.

  11. Describe the process of neural and humoral control of the cardiovascular system at rest and during exercise.

  12. Compare and contrast sex differences in the cardiovascular system.


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  • Early one February morning, 57-year-old Mr. Chu, an overweight, high-strung financial advisor living in Boston, Massachusetts, was struggling to shovel the latest winter snowfall from his driveway. After several minutes of strenuous activity, he became dizzy, short of breath, and extremely tired. Convincing himself that these feelings were of no great concern, he pressed on and continued to overexert himself. However, the physical demand was too much, and he collapsed in the snow, clenching his chest in debilitating pain. His wife saw what had happened and called 911 immediately. Subsequently, Mr. Chu was rushed to the local hospital in an ambulance.

    What do Mr. Chu's signs and symptoms likely indicate?

  • While at the emergency department in the local hospital, Mr. Chu underwent life-saving open-heart surgery to treat a 90% blocked left anterior descending coronary artery. The surgery that was chosen to be the most appropriate for Mr. Chu is known as coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), one of the most common and successful procedures used today to treat victims of coronary artery disease.1

    During CABG, cardiovascular surgeons obtain healthy arteries or veins from another part of the body to bypass or circumvent blocked arteries in the heart. CABG is successful in relieving chest pain and improving blood flow in regions of the heart that were affected by the blocked vessels. However, once the surgery has been completed, the individual may experience numerous challenges in his or her return to a normal lifestyle. Indeed, surviving a myocardial infarction is just the beginning of a long, challenging process of medically supervised care and rehabilitation. Nevertheless, the majority of victims of myocardial infarction, with proper cardiac rehabilitation and leadership from allied health and fitness professionals, can participate in daily activities and, in many cases, continue their lives with an improved sense of ...

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