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Chapter Objectives

At the conclusion of this chapter, the reader will be able to:

  • Discuss the important contributions of Stanley V. Paris to the specialty of orthopaedic manual physical therapy (OMPT).

  • Discuss the major foundational principles upon which the Paris approach is established and the other approaches to OMPT that have been most influential in its development.

  • Describe the Paris approach's view of pain and its role in examination and intervention.

  • Define dysfunction and differentiate it from disease.

  • Identify Paris's classification of motion and the value in identifying each during the clinical examination.

  • Discuss the value of palpation and the three distinct ways in which palpation is used to guide intervention within this approach.

  • Describe the factors that influence patient outcomes.

  • Identity common dysfunctions along with their pathogenesis, sequelae, and recommended intervention.

  • Demonstrate basic proficiency in the performance and grading of passive intervertebral mobility (PIVM)


Stanley V. Paris graduated from the New Zealand School of Physiotherapy at the University of Otago in 1958, after which he joined his father in private practice. He was appointed as a physical therapist to the New Zealand Olympic Team for the 1960 and 1968 Olympic Games. In 1966, Paris came to the United States where he was on the faculty at Boston University and was staff physical therapist at Massachusetts General Hospital. Soon after his immigration to America, Paris became involved in the teaching of orthopaedic manual physical therapy (OMPT) courses to therapists in the United States. At that time in the United States, the principles and practices of OMPT had not yet found their way into mainstream physical therapy. Paris established the Institute of Graduate Physical Therapy and, along with a cohort of skilled clinicians, began to teach a series of continuing education courses across the country. These courses, which emphasized hands-on training, were designed to culminate in manual therapy certification (MTC). Paris's efforts to make these innovative concepts accessible have contributed greatly to the popularization of OMPT in the United States. These courses have continued to develop and expand over the years, with several certifications now offered. Paris completed his PhD in 1984, using his research on lumbar spine neuroanatomy, which identified previously undiscovered neural pathways. Paris was the first president of the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), was the founding chairman and later president of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists (IFOMPT), and was a founding member of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists. Paris is a Catherine Worthingham Fellow of the APTA and is a Mary McMillan lecturer. Paris's institute is now the University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences, which currently offers five majors in the health-related professions and is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education. It is the first privately owned university of its kind in the country, graduating approximately 200 entry-level physical and occupational therapists ...

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