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As the upper extremity and axial skeleton were presented in Unit 2, Unit 3 continues on to the lower extremity and provides information and investigations into the kinesiological functions of the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle from a clinical perspective. Anatomy of these segments is summarized in tables to make reference to the information a matter of quick review. Emphasis in each of the chapters is placed on joint kinematics and osteokinematics along with important muscle functions of each of the segments.

Unit 3 begins with the hip in Chapter 9. Since the pelvis is an intimate part of the hip, it is presented here as it regards hip movement and function. The impact weight-bearing during stance and gait has on these structures is presented along with the influences of singlelimb weight-bearing.

Chapter 10 addresses the knee complex. The knee includes the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint, both of which are investigated in this chapter. How forces affect these joints and the impact of neural influences are also discussed. Hip and knee muscle interaction is also presented in this chapter.

In Chapter 11, the foot and ankle are discussed. The multiple joints of these structures and their separate and combined actions are presented along with changes in their function and motion during open and closed kinetic chain activities. Unique motions of the foot are discussed along with how these impact other body segments.

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