In a clinical trial, the evaluation of some of the data before the study is completed to determine if any important trends can be identified. These trends might indicate, for example, that the study should be stopped either because it is clearly succeeding or because it is obviously failing.
[L. interior, nearer, interior] 1. Situated within. 2. The inner portion or area of something.
(ĭn″tĕr-kĭ-nē′sĭs) [″ + Gr. kinesis, movement] The interval between the first and second meiotic divisions of cells.
(int″ĕr-lā′bē-ăl) [inter- + labial] Between the lips or labia.
(int″ĕr-lă-mel′ăr) [inter- + lamellar] Between lamellae.
(in″tĕr-loo′kĭn) ABBR: IL. A type of cytokine that enables communication among leukocytes and other cells active in inflammation or the specific immune response. The result is a maximized response to a microorganism or other foreign antigen. SEE: cell-mediated immunity; cytokine; inflammation.
i.-1 ABBR: IL-1. A cytokine released by almost all nucleated cells that activates the growth and function of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; promotes the release of additional mediators that influence immune responses; enhances production of cerebrospinal fluid; and modulates certain adrenal, hepatic, bone, and vascular smooth muscle cell activity. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factors, whose actions are almost identical to those of IL-1, are involved in fever production and other systemic effects of inflammation. SEE: tumor necrosis factor.
i.-1-beta ABBR: IL-1-β. A protein released by activated macrophages that stimulates B cells and thymocytes to proliferate and mature and increases the secretion of interleukin 2. It is found in high levels in the blood of patients with septic shock and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis. SYN: catabolin.
i.-2 ABBR: IL-2. A cytokine released primarily by activated CD4+ helper T lymphocytes. It is a major mediator of T cell proliferation, promotes production of other cytokines, enhances natural killer cell function, and is a cofactor for immunoglobulin secretion. SYN: T-cell growth factor.
i.-3 ABBR: IL-3. A cytokine produced by activated T cells that promotes proliferation of bone marrow stem cells. SYN: mast cell growth factor; multi-colony stimulating factor.
i.-4 ABBR: IL-4. A cytokine released by activated T cells and mast cells that stimulates B and T lymphocyte production and activity, prevents macrophages from releasing monokines, and promotes mast cell, immunoglobulin E, and eosinophil activity. SYN: B cell growth factor; mast cell growth factor II; T-cell growth factor II.
i.-5 ABBR: IL-5. A cytokine produced by T cells, eosinophils and mast cells that acts as the primary stimulant for eosinophil production. SYN: eosinophil colony-stimulating factor; eosinophil differentiation factor. ...