incompetent palatal syndrome
(ĭn-kŏm′pĭ-tīnt păl′ă-tĭl sĭn′drōm″) Incomplete or ineffective separation by the soft palate of the nasopharynx from the oropharynx, characterized by hypernasality and distortion of speech called whinolalia. This syndrome may be due to congenital or acquired defects of the palate.
(ĭn″kŏm-prĕs′ĭ-bl) [″ + compressus, pressed together] Compact; not compressible.
(ĭn″kŏn-sō′lŏ-bĭl) [L. inconsolabilis] Said of an infant or child who is extremely irritable and cannot be comforted despite its parents' best efforts. In pediatrics inconsolability is a clinical indicator of severe illness.
(in-kont′ĭn-ĕns) [L. incontinentia, inability to retain] 1. Loss of self-control, esp. of urine, feces, or semen. 2. Loss of neurological or psychological control, e.g., of habits, speech, or of the appetites for food or sex.
bowel i. Change in normal bowel habits characterized by involuntary passage of stool. SEE: Nursing Diagnoses Appendix.
fecal i. Failure of the anal sphincter to prevent involuntary expulsion of gas, liquid, or solids from the lower bowel. SYN: anal i. SEE: encopresis.
functional urinary i. Inability of usually continent person to reach the toilet in time to avoid unintentional loss of urine. Urinary incontinence (UI) affects about 30% of older adults living at home and about 50% of those in nursing care facilities. Women are more likely than men to develop UI. UI can result in physical problems such as skin breakdown, but it also causes emotional problems such as embarrassment, frustration, depression, and loss of self-esteem, which may lead to social isolation, loss of independence, and even institutionalization. SEE: Nursing Diagnoses Appendix.
PATIENT CARE: Health care professionals should make questions about incontinence a routine part of taking a patient's history because the patient may be too embarrassed to report the problem without prompting. The type of episodes experienced should be documented and how long the problem has been present. Many factors may be involved, including neurologic disorders, urinary tract infection, adverse drug effects, irritants such as artificial sweeteners, caffeine, certain foods, and decreased muscle tone. Physical examination should follow up on the problem, and a urologic consultation may be warranted.
Functional UI may afflict older adults who have normal bladder control but have a difficult time getting to the toilet because of problems that interfere with mobility, e.g., arthritis, Parkinson disease, or stroke. Environmental factors (such as clutter, lack of ready access to facilities, distance to the toilet) may also play a part. Health care professionals should assess the patient's fluid intake to be sure he or she is drinking enough and should review his or her medication regimen to determine if any of the drugs affect continence. The patient should be ...